Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni
Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni

Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni

1981 ŞUBAT Cilt 24 Sayı 1
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CONTENTS
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Genesis and Emplacement of The Pre-Laassic Ophiolites and Blueschists of The Middle Sakarya Region
Kamil Şentürk Cengiz Karaköse
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Abstract: The Ophiolites, which includes green and blueschists cover large areas in the Middle Sakarya Region. Theformation of the ophiolites, the age of the green-blueschists and their age of emplacement were established with somecertainity. These findings have vontributed to the understanding of the general geology of the area in the following ways:Extensive spilitic volcanism occured between Late Permian-Triassic times. Within this time period the area waseffected by tensional forces. Limestones which had been deposited on the shallower parts of the area were faulted andgenerated different size of blocks. These limestone blocks were mixed with the products of the spilitic volcanism.Serpantinized ultrabasic rocks; gabbros which were out by diabases; red pelagic ciaystones, radiolarites which wereformed in an already existed ocean basin during Triassic time were later emplaced over continental crust during Pre -Jurassic / in early Jurassic times.Clastics and volcano-clastics which had been metamorphosed to blueschist were also deposited in the Triassic sea thenthay were thrusted over continental crust during Late Triassic / very Early Liassic times.The area which had the stable shelf character particularly during Late Triassic time were again effected by thetensional system towards the Early Cretaceous time and thick clastic rocks were deposited in the outcomingdepressions.

  • Ophiolite

  • blueschist

  • diabas

  • Middle Sakarya region

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  • Altınlı, Î.E., 1973b, Bilecik Jürasik`i: Cumhuriyetin 50. Yılı Yerbilimleri Kongresi, 103 - 111.

  • Çoğulu, E., Delaloye, E. et Chessex, R., Surl`age de quelques roches intrusives acides de la râgion d`Eskişehir (Turquie): Archiyes des sciences 50O. de physique et d`histoire nat. de Geneve, 18, 3, .692-699.

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  • Granit, Y. ve Tintant, H., 1960, Observations preliminaires sur le Jurassique de la region de Bilecik (Turquie): Lab. de Geol. Ge

  • Şentürk, K. ve Karaköse, C, 1979, Orta Sakarya dolayının temel jeolojisi: Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enst.t Rap. No: 6642Ş, Ankara.

  • Yılmaz, Y., 1979, Söfüt-Bilecik bölgesinde polimetamorfizma ve bunların jeotektonik anlamı: Türkiye Jeol. Kur, Bült., 22-1, 85-100.

  • Metamorphic Conditions of Gneisses and Schists in The Menderes Massif, Alaşehir-Manisa
    Remzi Akkök
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    Abstract: The present research area lies in the eastern part of the Menderes Massif, near Alaşehir-Manisa. In thisregion, three metamorphic rock groups are recognised on the basis of their lithologies and structural positions, namely,the Gneiss Complex, the Schist Complex and the Marbles.Petrographic, mineralogical and structural data indicate that the Schist Complex have undergone at least threephases of metamorphism. The first phase has been partially obliterated by the second phase which is in the amphibolitefacies. The Gneiss Complex comprises porphyroblastic, augen, massive granitic and banded gneises, and some migmatites. Geological, petrographical and chemical evidence shows that the Gneiss Complex suffered partial anatexis.For example mafic inclusions in certain gneisses of the Gneiss Complex represent restites. The Schist Complexcontains quartzo-feldspathic gneiss, garnet- mica schist, quartzite and augen gneiss.During the second phase of regional metamorphism, temperatures reached 600°C with accompanying pressures of5 kb in the Schist Complex, while 660°C with pressures of 5-6 kb in the Gneiss Complex.

  • schist

  • gneisses

  • marble

  • Menderes Massif

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  • Akdeniz, N., ve Konak, N., 1979, Menderes Masifinin Simav dolayındaki Kaya birimleri ve Metabazik, Metaultramafik Kayaların Konumu: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült, 22/2, 175-183.

  • Akkök, R., 1977, Ultramafic inclusions in the Menderes Massif near Alagehir, Manisa: Sixth Colloqium on Geology of the Aegean Region, İzmir. (Yayında`).

  • Akkök, R,, 1979, Petrology of gneisses and schists in the Menderes Massif, Derbent, Alaşehir, Turkey; Ph. D. Thesis-London, yayinlanmamig.

  • Akkök, R., 1980, Menderes Masifinde paragonit mineralinin varlığı, Alagehir - Manisa: M.T.A. Dergisi (Yayında).

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  • Boyd, F.R., ve England, J.L., 1959, Pyrope: Geophys. Lab. A. Rep. Director for 1958-1959, 83-87.

  • Brinkmann, R., 1966, Geoteetonische Gliederung von West-Anatolien: Neues Jahrb. Geol. Palfiont, Monatsh., No. 10, 603-618.

  • Brinkmann, R., 1971, The geology of Western Anatolia: Campbell, A.S., ed.. Geology and History of Turkey de: Petroleum Exploration Society of Libya, Tripoli, 159-170

  • Chatterjee, N.D., 1970, Synthesis and upper stability of paragonite: Contr. Mineral. Petrol, 27, 244-257.

  • Chatterjee, N.D., 1972, The Upper Stability Limit of the Assemblage Paragonuite -f- Quartz and Its Natural Occurrences: Contr. Mineral. Petrol., 34, 288-303.

  • Dora, O.Ö., 1975, Menderes Masifinde alkali feldspatların yapısal durumları ve bunların petrojenetik yorumlarda kullanılması: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült,, 18/2, 111-126.

  • Engel, A.B., ve Enge!., C.G., 1960, Progressive metamorphism and granitization of the major paragneiss, north-west Adirondack Mountains, New York: Bull. Geol. Sec. Amerika, 71, 1-57

  • Erkan, Y., 1978, Kırşehir Masifinde Granat Minerallerinin kimyasal bileşimi ile Rejyonal Metamorfizma arasındaki İlişkiler; Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 21/1. 43-50.

  • Eugster, H.P., ve Yoder, H.S., 1955, The Join muscovite-paragonite: Geophys. Lab. A. Rep. Director for 1954-1955, 124-126.

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  • Graciansky, P. de., 1965, Menderes Masifi güney kıyısı boyunca görülen metamorfizma hakkında açıklamalar: M.T.A. Dergisi, 64, 9-23.

  • Hsü, L.C., 1968, Selected phase relationships in the system Al-Mn-FeSi-O; a model for garnet equilibria:J. Petrol., 9, 40-83.

  • îzdar, K.E., 1971, Introduction to geology and metamorphism of Menderes Massif of western Turkey; Campbell, A.S.. ed., Geology and History of Turkey de: Petroleum Exploration Society of Libya, Tripoli, 495-500.

  • îzdar, K.B., 1975, Batı Anadolunun jeotektonik gelişimi: Ege Univ. Müh. Bil. Fak. Yayım, 58-59.

  • Kaden, G., ve Metz, 1954, Datca-Mugla-Dalaman çayı arasında bölgenin jeolojisi: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., Ç/1-2, 71-170.

  • Kaya, O., 1972, Aufbau und Geschichte einer Anatolischen OphiolithZone: Zeitschr. Deutsch. Geol. Ges. Hannover, 123, 491-501.

  • Keesman, I., Matthes, C, Schreyer, W., ve Seifert, F., 1971, Stability of almandine in the system FeO - (FeoO^) - Al oOo - SiOn - (HnO) at eleavted pressures; Contr. Mineral. Petrol., 31, 132-144.

  • Ketin, t., 1959, The orogenic evolution of Turkey: M.T.A. Dergisi, 53, &f> GİZ

  • Leake, B.E., 1965, The relationship between composition of calciferous amphibole and grade of metamorphism;

  • Mason, R., 1978, Petrology of the Metamorphic Roskc: London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., 254 s

  • Mehnert, K.R., 1968, Migmatltes and the origin of granitic rocks: Amsterdam: Elsevier, 405 s

  • Miyashiro, A., 1953, Calcium-poor garnet in relation to metamorphism: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 4, 179-208.

  • Miyashiro, A., 1958, Regional metamorphism of the Gosaisyo-Takanuki district in the central. Abukama Plateau; Tokyo Univ., J. Fac. Sci., 11, 219-272.

  • Miyashiro, A., 1973, Metamorphism and metamorphic belts: London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., 492 s.

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  • onay, T., 1949, Uber die smirgelgesteine SW-Anatoliens: Schw. Min. Petr. Mitt, Bd. XXIX, Heft 2, 357-492.

  • Philippson, A., 1915, Reisen und Forschungen im westlichen Kleinasien H.5: Karien südlich des maander und das westlichen Lykien: Peterm. Geogr. Mitt. Erg., 183, 1-158.

  • Philippson, A., 1918, Kleinasien. Handbuch der regionalen Geologie: Bd. V., Abt. >, Heidelberg, 2813 8.

  • Raase, P., 1974, Al and Tl Contents of Hornblande, Indicators of pressure and temperature of Regional Metamorphism: Contr. Mineral. Petrol., 45, 231-236.

  • Richardson, S.W., ve Gilbert, M.C., 1969, Experimental determination of Kyanite-Andalusite and Andalusite-silimanite Equilibria; the aliminium silicate triple point: Am. J. Sci., 267, 259-272.

  • Saxena, S.K., 1968, Nature of mixing in ferromagnesian silicates and the significanse of the distribution coefficient: Neues Jahrb. Mineral. Monatsh., 8, 275-286.

  • Schuiling, R.D., 1958, Menderes Masifine ait bir gözlü gnays üzerinde zirkon etüdü: M.T.A. Dergisi, 51, 38-42.

  • Schuiling, R.D., 1962, Türkiyenin güneybatısındaki Menderes migmatitik kompleksinin petrolojisi, yaşı ve yapısı hakkında: M.T.A. Dergisi, 58, 71-85.

  • Sturt, B.A.I 1962, The composition of garnet from pelitic schists in relation to the grade of regional metamorphism: J. Petrol., 3, 181-191.

  • Turner, F.J., ye Verhoogen, ., 1960, Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology: 2 nd ed. New York: Me Graw-Hill, 694 s.

  • von Platen, H., 1965, Experimental anatexis and genesis of mlgmatites; W.S. Pitcher ve G.W. Flinn, ed., Controls of Metamorphism de: Edinburg and London, Oliver and Boyd, 203-218.

  • Winkler, H.G.F., 1967, Petrogenesis of Metamorphic Rocks: 2 nd ed. Berlin: Springer, 220 s

  • Wippern, J., 1964, Menderes Masifinin Alpidik dag teşekkülü içindeki durumu: M.T.A. Dergisi, 62, 71-79.

  • Yoder, H.S., 1950, Stability relations of grossularite: J. Geol., 58, 221-253

  • Yoder, U.S., 1955, Role of water in metamorphism: Geol. Soc. Am., Spec. Papers, 62, 505-524.

  • Yoder, H.S., ve Eugster, H.P., 1955, Synthetic land natura? muscovite: Geochim Cocmochim. Acta, 8, 225-280

  • Petrology of the Quaternary Basalts of Ceyhan - Osmaniye Area
    Ali Zafer Bilgin Tuncay Ercan
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    Abstract: Quaternary volcanic rocks widespread in Ceyhan, Osmaniye,Yumurtalık and Haruniyeregions are investigated petrologically to interpret the type of crust from which they originated. The rocks are composed mainly of plagioclase, augite andolivine phenoerysts and ground massof similar bult chemistry. They are plateau basalts of tholeiiticcharacter with a weak alkaline affinity. The area lies in a critical region from the point of view of plate tectonics.Thus, detailed petrochemical work: has been carried  out; as a result of attachment of great importance of geochemistryof volcanic rocks to lead to plate tectonic interpretations.  Sedimentary rocks of Cenozoic age are also briefly described.

  • basalt

  • plate tectonic

  • plagioclase

  • Osmaniye

  • Aramaki, S., 1963, Geology of Asamo volcano: J. Fac. Sc. Üniv. , Tokyo, 14 233-439

  • Ataman, G., Çapan, U.Z., Göksen, S.L. ve Buket, E., 1974, Plaka tek-toniği ilkeleri: Hacettepe Fen ve Müh. Bil. Derg., 4, 113-178.

  • Barberi, F., Innocenti, F., Marinelli, G. ve Mazzuoli, R., 1074, Vulcanismo e tettonlca a placche: esempi nell’area Mecliterranea, 67 th Congr. S. G. 1

  • Batum, I., 1978, Nevşehir Güneybatısındaki Güllüdag ve Acıgöl vol-kanitlerinin jeokimyası ve petroloiisi: Yerbilimleri, 4, 1-2, 70-88.

  • Carmichael, I.S.E., 1964, The petrology of thingmuli, a Tertiary Vol- kano in Eastern Iceland: Jour of Petrology, 6/3, 435-460.

  • Church, B.N., 1975, Quantitative classification and chemical compa¬rison of common colvanic rocks: Geol. Soe. Amer. Bull, 86, 257-263.

  • Cox, K.G., Bell, 3.V. ve Pankhurst, R.J., 1979, The interpretation of igneous rocks; George Allen and Unwin Ltd, London, 460 s.

  • Engel, A.E.J., ve Engel, C.G., 1964a, Composition of basalts from the mid-Atlantic ridge: Science, 144, 1330-1333.

  • Engel, A.E.J. ve Engel, C.G., 1964 b, Igneous rocks of the East Pasifle Rise: Science, 146, 477-485.

  • Engel, A.E.J., Engel, C.G. ve Havens, R.G., 1965, Chemical characte¬ristics of oceanic basalts and upper mantle: Bull. Geol. Soc Amer., 76, 719-734.

  • Gottini, V., 1968, The TiO, Frequency in colcanic rocks: Geol. Rdsch., 57, 930-935.

  • Gottini, V., 1969, Serial sharacter of the volcanic rocks of Pantelleria: Bull. Vole, 3, 818-827.

  • Gözübol, A.M. ve Gürpınar, O., 1980, Kahramanmaraş kuzeyinin jeolo¬jisi ve Tektonik evrimi: Türkiye 5. Petrol Kong. Tebliğ Kitabı, 20.

  • Green, T.H. ve Ringwood, A.E., 1967, The genesis of the basaltic magma: Contr, Mineral, Petrol., 15, 103-190.

  • Holmes, A. ve Harwood, H.F., 1929, The tholeiite dykes of the north of England: Mineralog. Mag., 22, 1-52.

  • Irvine, T.N. ve Baragar, W.R.A., 1971, A guide to the chemical classification of the common volcanic rocks; Can. Jour. Earth. Sci., 8, 523-548.

  • Jakes, P. ve White, A.J.R., 1972, Major and trace element abundances in volcanic rocks of orogenic areas: Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 83, 29-40.

  • Ketin, t, 1877, Genel jeoloji, Cilt: 1, Yerbilimlerine giriş: t.T.Ü. Ya¬yını, 1036, 597 s.

  • Kuno, H., 1960, Petrology of Hakone volcano and the adjacent Areas, Japon: Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., 61, 957-1020.

  • Le Maitre, R.W., 1976, The chemical variability of some Common igneous rocks: Jour, of Petrology, 17/4, 589-598.

  • MacDonald, GA ve Katsura, J., 1964, Chemical composition of Hawaiian lavas: Jour, of Petrology, 5, 82-133

  • Manşon, V., 1967, Geochemistry of basaltic rocks; Major elements: în: Hess, H.H. and Poldervaart, A (Eds): Basalts 1 p: 215-269. Middlemost, EAK.i 1975, A simpla classification of volcanic rocks: Bull. Volcan., 36/2, 382-397.

  • Miyashiro, A., 1975, Classification, characteristic and origin of Ophi¬olites: our. of Geology, 83, 249-281.

  • Rittmann, A., 1952, Nomenclature of volcanic Rocks: Bull. Volcan. seri 11, 12, 76-102.

  • Rittmann, A:, 1953, Magmatic character and tectonic position of the Indonesian volcanoes: Bull, Volcan. seri 11, 14, 45-58.

  • Rittmann, A., 1962, Volcanoes and their activity; John Wiley and sons Newyork, London, 305 s.

  • Stride, AV., Belderson, R.H., Kenyon, N,H., 1977, Evolving Miogean- ticlines of the East Mediterraneon (Hellenic, Calabrian and yprus outter ridgls): Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond., 284, 1316¬1326.

  • Tilley, C.E., 1960, Differentiation of Ha-waiian basalts and some variants in lava suites of dated Kilauean eruptions: jour, of Petrology, 1, 47-55.

  • Wilkinson, J.F., 1967, The Petrography of basaltic Rocks: In: Hess, a H. and Poldervaart, A (Eds): Basals 1.

  • Wright, J.B., 1969, A simple alkalinity ratio and its application to questions of non-orogenic granite genesis: Geol. Mag., 106/4, 370-384.

  • Yoder, H.S. ve Tilley, C.E.i 1962, Origin of basalt magmas: an experi¬mental study of natural and synthetic rock systems: jour, of Petrology, 3, 342-532.

  • The Inner Structure of Ophiolitic Melange and Age of Its Emplacement
    Ali Yilmaz
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    Abstract: The studied area lies between Tokat and Sivas (Yıldızeli, Karaçayır). The rocks taking place at thenorthern part of the area are mainly made of greenish shists and crystallized limestone blocks which some of themPermian aged. Metamorphic rocks outcrops at the south and they are made of two layers; calcschist interbedded withgreenish schist and marble is overlain by quartzite.Ophiolitic melange of east-west trend takes place between the units described above. Ophiolitik melange is madeof a matrix is formed of tuff, agglomerate and mainly serpantinite and having lots of shear fracture; marble, phyllite,cyristaliized limestone, radiolarite, sedimentary rocks of Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous age interval, pelajik limestone of Cenomanian age, peridotite (generally werlite), gabbro, diabase blocks with in the matrix.Upper Cenonian limestone unit including olisthostromes belonging to the ophiolitic melange overlies on the ophioliticmelange unconformably at the north. According to these data, it could be concluded that the ophiolitic melangeemplaced between Cenomanien and Ltower Cenonian.Metamorphits at the south around Karaçayır and ophiolitic melange are cut by granodiorite.Eocene aged conglomerate, sandstone and argillastone alternation overlies the ophiolitic melange with an unconformity at the north. Conglomerate, limestone, sandstone and arglEastone layers generally containing Upper Cretaceousaged blocks are underlain by metamorphites unconformably around Karaçayır.Neogene units are continental and they overlies all other units unconformably.

  • olisthostrome

  • peridotite

  • granodiorite

  • Tokat

  • Baykal, F., 1947, Zile-Tokat-Yıldızeli bölgesinin jeolojik etüdü: Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enst. Derleme Rap. no. 1709, Ankara.

  • 1966, 1:500.000 ölçekli Türkiye Jeoloji Haritası (Sivas): Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enst. yayınları, 116 s. Ankara.

  • Blumenthal, M.M., 1950, Beitraege zur geologie des Landschaften am Mittleren und Ünteren Yegilırmak (Tokat, Amasya, Havza, Erbaa, Niksar): Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enst. yaylaları, Seri D., no 4, 1538.

  • Brinkmann, R., 1976, Türkiye Jeolojisine Giriş (Çev. Orhan Kaya): Ege Üniv. Fen Fakültesi Kitapları Serisi no. 53, 155 s, Bornova, İzmir

  • İlhan, E., 1976, Türkiye Jeolojisi: Orta Doğu Teknik Üniv. Mühendislik Fakültesi, yaym no. 51, 239 s. Ankara.

  • Koçyigit, A., 1979, Çördük Olistostromları: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bülteni, 22/1, 59-68

  • Olcay, A.C., 1953, Sivas ile Tokat arasındaki bölgenin (Reşadiye 44/3 paftasının) jeolojisi hakkında not: Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enst. Derleme Rap. no. 2242. Ankara1 , Yayınlanmamış.

  • Özcan, A., Erkan, A., Keskin, A., Oral. A., özer, S.. Sümengen, M., Tekeli, O., 1980, Kuzey Anadolu Fayı - Kırşehir Masifi arasının Temel Jeolojisi: Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enst. Derleme Rap. no. 6722, Ankara, yayınlanmamış.

  • Göksu, E., 1974, 1/500.000 ölçekli Türkiye Jeoloji Haritası (Samsun1 ): Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enst. yayınları, 78 s.

  • Tatar, Y., 1978, Ofiyolitli Çamlıbel (Yıldızeli) bölgesinin stratigrafisi ve petrografisi: Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enst. Derg., 88, 56-72.

  • Terlemez, î. ve Yılmaz, A., 1980, Ünye-Ordu-Reşadiye-KoyulhisarKaracayır-Hafik arasında kalan bölgenin Jeolojisi: Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enst. Derleme Rap. no. 6671 Ankara, yayınlanmamış.

  • Yalçınlar, t, 1955, Sivas 61/1, 61/2, 61/4 paftalarına ait jeolojik rapor: Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enst. Derleme Rap. no. 2577. Ankara yayınlanmamış.

  • Yılmaz, A., 1979, Dumanlı Dağı (Tokat) ile Çeltek Dağı (Sivas) arasındaki bölgede ofiyolitli kangıgın is yapısı ve diğer birimlerle ilişkisi: 33. Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bilimsel ve Teknik Kurultayı, Bildiri Özetleri, s. 74

  • Yücel, T., 1955, Kangal-Gemerek arası jeolojisi hakkında rapor (1/100.000`lik 61/4, 61/3, 60/4, 60/2); Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enst. Derleme Rap. No. 2336, Ankara, yayınlanmamış.

  • The Geology of Gevaş Ophiolite and A Synkinematic Shear Zone
    Yücel Yilmaz Yildirim Dilek Halil Işik
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    Abstract: Four tectonic units have been differentiated in the Gevaş (Van) region. These are; (a) ophiolite association, (b)metamorphic rocks of the outer envelope of the Bitlis masif, (c) a zone of transition between theophiolite and the metamorphic rocks and, (d) the overlying sedimentary cover. Within the present sequence, theophiolite is at the bottom. The ophiolite may well be regarded as an ordered type of ophiolite. Although its membersare locally displaced / missing, the tectonic readjustment nowhere appears to have gone to form a caotic assemblage.The ophiolite is overlain by the merbles through a zone of tectonic transition. The Eocene sediments rest on the earlier rocks on a surface of angular unconformity. Following the deposition of the Eocene the primary position of the unitshave been largely disturbed and the underlying units were locally pushed over the young sedimentary rocks in a northerly direction. The thrustings have modified the original of "the zone of transition". Analyses of the structural features have enabled to reconstract the primary position of the sequence prior to the development of the thrusting.Initially the ophiolite obducted on the carbonates of the Bitlis masif. During the obduction, 500 to 1000 m thickmetamorphic aureole were formed. Metamorphic rocks of the aureole range from amphibolite at the immediate contactdownwards in greenschists which inturn grade to unmetamorphased volcanic rocks and associated sedimentaryrocks (mainly the cherts). Later the zone of transition were intensely deformed. Still it can be traced continously as abelt over the whole region at the same structural level, and contains inclusions of the high grade amphibolites.This feature as well as the evidence derived from the followings indicate that the aureole rocks were shearedto the end stage of the obduction, forming a zone of tectonic transition. At the immediate contact the aureole mineralsshow semi-plastic rotation. Going away from the contact apparent increase in deformation of cataclastic nature, displaying structural features of the same sense of deformation are observed.During Eocene, shallow water marine detritics were deposited on the preexisting rocks including the zone oftransition. Later, northward thrustings occured. This displaced the primary position of the tectonic units in the sequence. The zone of transition were folded and in some places slices of the Eocene sediments were incorporated in thezone.As a result the present position of the units, where the ophiolite at the base while the marbles on the top wereformed.

  • ophiolite

  • shear zone

  • contact metamorphism

  • Van

  • Coleman, R.G., 1977, Ophiolites: Springer-Verlag Berlin-Heidelberg New York, 229 s.

  • Dewey, J.F., 1976, Ophiolite obduction: Tectonophysics, 31, 93-120

  • Kurtman, F., Akkug, M.F. ve Gedik, A., 1978, The geology and oil potential of the Mu§-Van region; Degens, E.T. ve Kurtman, F., ed., The Çreology of lake Van: M.T.A. Ankara 124-133

  • Oswalt, F., Armenien. Steinmann, G. ve Wilckens, O. Ed: Handb. Reg. Geol. Heidelberg, 10,40 s.

  • Ternek, Z., 1953, Van gölü güneydoğu bölgesinin jeolojisi; Türlüye Jeol. Kur. Bült. 4/2, 1-27.

  • Yılmaz, Y., 1978, Gevaş (Van) dolayında Bitlis masifi, ofiyolit iligkisi; Eseller, G., ed., Türkiye 4. Petrol Kongr. Tebliğlerinde: T.P.A.O. Ankara, 83-93.

  • Williams, H.f 1973, Bay of Islands map. area Newfoundland: Geol. Sur. Canada, Pap. 72-34, 1-7.

  • The Origin of Viridine-Gneiss from Niğde Massif
    Mehmet Cemal Göncüoğlu
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    Abstract: In the upper levels of Aşıgediği Formation which constitutes the youngest unit of the Niğde Massif, viridine gneisscrops out within the marbles, together with a complex consisting of amphibolite, greenschist, meta-gabbro, serpentinite andpyroxenite. The rock, containing Mn silicates such as piedmontite and allurgite as well as viridine which is a very rare form ofandalusite, is fine-grained, banded textured, and occurs as discontinous bands and lenses.Its banded texture, high manganese content and association with the above rocks show that the protolith of viri-dinegeneiss is comparable to that of the sedimentary rocks developed around the fracture zones of modern oceans. Thus, the viridinegneiss and the equivalent rocks do not belong to the environment in which the Aşıgediği Formation has been deposited, and theyshould have been added to the sequence later.

  • viridine-gneiss

  • pyroxenite

  • serpentinite

  • Niğde

  • Abs-Wurmbach, I, ve Langer, K., 1975, Synthetic Mn3+ —kyanite and viridine, Al,9 Y mnv 3-) SiO,., in the system ATOA— MnO-MnOo -SiOo : Contr. Mineral. Petrol., 49, 21-38

  • Anten, J., 1923, Le Salmien metamorphic du Sud du Massif Stavelot: Mem. Acad. Roy. Belgique, CI. Ser., II, 5, fase, 3., 26-41.

  • Backström, H., 1896, Manganandalusite from Vestena (Sweden): Geol, För, Stock Forh., 18, 386-389.

  • Bearth, P., 3976, Zur Gliderung der Bündnerschiefer in der Region von Zermatt: Eclogae geol. Helv., 69, 149-161.

  • Berger, A., 1968, Zur Geochemie und Lagerstaettenkunde** des Mangan»; Berlin Geoehem. Mineral. Rohstoffe, 7, 216 s.

  • Berzukov, P.L., 1960, Sedimentation in the northwestern Pacific Ocean: îtern. Geol. Congr., 1960 Copenhagen, Rept. Sov. Geol., 45-58.

  • Bilgrami, S.H.f 1956, Manganese-silicate minerals from Chikla, Bhandara District. India: Mineral. Mag., 31, 236-244.

  • Bonattl, E., 1975, Metallo genesis at oceanic spreading centers: Ann. Rev Earth Planet. ScL, 3, 401-431.

  • Bonatti, B., 1978, The origin of metal deposits in the oceanic lithosphere: Sci. Am., 238/2, 54-62.

  • Clifford, T.N., 1960, Spessartine and magnesium biotite in cuticule bearing rocks from Mill Hollow, Alstead Township, New Hempshire, USA: N. Jb. Mineral., Abh., 94, 1369-1400.

  • Cortesagno, L., Luccetti, G. ve Penco, A.M., 1980, La mineralizzazionia manganase nei diaspri delle ofioliti ligiiri: Rend. Soc. tt. Min., Petr., 80, 178.

  • Dalpiaz, G.V., Bottistini, D.G.>, Kienast, J.R. ve Venturelli, G., 1979, Manganiferous quartzitic schists of the Piedmonte ophiolite nappe: Mem. Sci. Geol., Padova. 32, 24 s.

  • Debenedetti, A., 1965, Î1 complesso radiolariti-giacimenti di manganese, come rappresentante del Malm nella Formazione di Caleescisti: Boll. Soc. Geol. ÎL, 84, 131-163

  • Göncüoflu, M.C., 1977, Geologie des westlichen Nigde-Massiv3: Bonn Univ., Doktora Tezi, 180 s.

  • Grapes. H.R., ve Hashimoto, S.,1978. Manganiferous Schists and their origin .Hidaka Mountains, Hokkaido, Japan: Contr. Mineral. Petrol.., 68., 23-35.

  • Hart, R.f 1973, A model for chemical exchange in the basalt - seawater system of oceanic layer II: Can, J. Earth Sci. 10, 799-816.

  • Heinrich, E.W., ve Corey, A.F., 1959, Manganian andalusite from Kiawa Mountain, Rio Artiba County, New Mexico,: Am. Mineral., 44. 1261-1271.

  • Karamata, S., Keesmann, I., Okrusch, M., 1970, Ein paragonit ftthrender granat-quarzit im Raum Brezovica, Stidserbien: N. Jb. Mineral., Monatshefte, 1970, İ-19

  • Kleinschmidt, G., 1975, Die Plankogelserie in der südlichen Koralpen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Manganquarziten: Verh. Geol. B. - A., 2-3, 351-362.

  • Klemm, G., 1911, Über Viridin, ein Abart des Andalusiten: Notizbl. Ver. Erdk. Darmstadt, 32, 4-13.

  • Kramm, U., 1973, Chloritoide stability in manganese-rich low grade metamorphic Rocks, Venn-Stavelot Massiv, Ardennes: Contr. Mineral. Petrol., 41, 179-196.

  • Kramm, U., 1976, The coticule rocks (spessartine quartiziten) of the Venn-Stavelot Massiv, Ardennes, a volcanoclastic metasedtment?: Contr. Mineral. Petrol., 56, 135-155.

  • Lynn, D.C., ve Bonatti, E., 1965, Mobility of manganese in diagenesis of deep-sea sediments: Marine Geology, 3, 457-474.

  • Meinhold, K.D. ve Frisch, T., 1970, Manganese-silicate-bearing metamorphic rocks from Central Tanzania: Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt. 493.507.

  • ödman, O.H., 1950, Manganese mineralization in the Ultevis district, jokkmokk, Sweden: Sver. Geol. Unders. Arsbok., 41 (&), 76 s

  • Prider, R.T., 1960, Viridine From Mt Ragged, western Australia: Indian Mineral., 1, 42-47.

  • Schiessstedt, M., 1976 Das Metamorphikum der Insel Gravdos, Griechenland: Braunschweig Univ., Doktora Tezi., 715 s.

  • Schneiderhöhn, H., 1962, Erzlagerstaetten: Fischer Veri., Stuttgart, 371 s.

  • Shabynin, L.Î., 1950, Viridin iz Yakutu: Mem. Soc. Russe Mineral, 77, 203-214.

  • Spooner, E.T.C., ve Fyfe, W.S., 1973, Sub-sea-floor metamorphism, heat and mass tranfer: Contr Mineral. Petrol., 42, 287-304.

  • Suzuki, J., Bamba, T., ve Suzuki, Y., 1965, On the viridine quartz schist from the Chici Area, Hidaka Province, Hokkaido, Japan: Proc. Jap. Acad., 41/8, 722-727.

  • Tekeli, O., 1980, Aladağlarda peridotitlerle yakın ilişkili metamorfitlerin kökeni ve metamorfizması: Türkiye Jeoloji Kurumu 34. Bilimsel ve Teknik Kongresi, Bildiri özetleri, 40.

  • Thennart, P., 1954, Decouverte de manganandalusite dans la maseif du Ruvenzori, au Congo Belge: Compt. Rendu, 238, 1140-1141.

  • Trommsdorf, V., Scwander, H., ve Peters, Tj., 1970, Mangansilikate der alpinen metamorphose in Radiolariten des Julier-Bernina Ctebietes: Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt, 50, 539-545.

  • Tröger, T.P., 1967, Optische Bestimmung gesteinsbildender Minerale, Bd. İL: Schweizerb. Veri., Stuttgart. 822 s.

  • Wedepohl, K.H., 1960, Handbook of geochemistry: Springer Veri., Berlin 442 s

  • Winkler, H.G.F., 1967, Pedogenesis of metamorphic rocks: Springer Veri., Berlin 237 s.

  • A Multiple Mode of Faulting Mechanism Proposed for The North Anatolian Fault and Prediction of Related Earthquakes
    Kadri Erçin Kasapoğlu
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    Abstract: Investigation of the nature of stress, strain and displacement distributions in the North Anatolian Fault(NAF) zone, has been attempted on an analytical model of tha plates adjacent to the fault, utilizing the finite elementtechniques. Concentrtion of tensile stresses occurs around the eastern end of the fault zone, as a consequence of northwardmovement of the Arabian plate. Initial faulting occurs at this end, in the form, of a tensile fracture, opens and propagatesdiagonally in NE - SW direction along the East Anatolian Fault (EAF). Movements along the EAF, releases the tensilestresses originally developed at the eastern end of the NAF; and thus causes a redistribution of stresses and strains in theNAF zone. This redistribution is responsible for the subsequent ruptures, predominantly in ‘slip’ mode; and associated witha frictional strength criterion. These shear fractures initiate at the eastern end of the NAF and propagate towards west,are described as ‘progressive faulting’. Before these progressive ruptures could reach to the central portion of the fault zone;a third mode of faulting begins, again as shear fractures, at the western end of the NAF and propagates backward along thefault, towards east. This third mode of faulting is described as ‘retrogressive’. So, the proposed faulting mechanism forthe NAF, is a `progressive and retrogressive strike-slip` mechanism.The elastic strain energy accumulated in the fault zone, is largely released by these progressive and retrogressivefaultings in the eastern and western sections; and no important ruptures occur in the central section of the fault to causelarge earth-quakes. Therefore, this central section of the NAF zone, specifically between the longitudes of 33` E and 35 E,may be considered as a ‘seismic gap’. However, there are evidences of continuous creep events in the central section ofthe fault zone indicating a continuous strain energy occumulation in this area. Therefore, the possibility of a largeearthquake to occur in the future in this seismic gap area, should be seriously considered.

  • North Anatolian Fault

  • East Anatolian Fault

  • seismic gap

  • retrogressive faulting

  • Alptekin, ö, 1973, Focal mechanism of earthquakes in Western Turkey and their tectonic implications; Ph. D. Thesis, New Mexico Mining and Technology Institute, U.S’A.

  • Aytun, A., 1973, îsmetpaşa istasyonu civarında krip ölçümleri: Kuzey . Anadolu Fayı ve Deprem Kuşazı Simpozyumu (29, 30, 31 Mart - —1972), M.T.A. Enstitüsü, Ankara, 114-121

  • Canıtez, N., 1973, Teni kabuk hareketlerine ilişkin çalışmalar ve Kuzey Anadolu Fayı problemi: Kuzey Anadolu Fayı ve Deprem Kuşağı Simpozyumu (29, 30, 31 Mart - 1972), M.T.A. Enstitüsü, Ankara, 35_-ö8

  • Dewey, J. W., 1974, Turkey’s North Anatolian Fault comparison with San Anrdeas Fault: U.S.G.S., Earthquake Information Bull., 6, 13, 12-16.

  • Kasapoğlu, K.E., 1976, Fay mekanizmasının saptanması ve olasılı depremlerin öngörülmesinde analitik yöntemlerden yararlanma; Yerbilimleri, 2, 1, 93-96.

  • McKenzie, D.P., 1972, Active tectonics of the Mediterranean region: Geophys. Jr. Astr. Soc., 30, 109-185.

  • The Characteristic Features of Aladağ Ophiolitic Melange (Taurus Mountains)
    Okan Tekeli
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    Abstract: Three different units which have different characteristics were identified within the Aladağ ophioliticmelange. The lowest one is called "uniform basal sequence", the middle one "olistostrome sequence" and the top unit"chaotic sequence".Gravitational mass-flow and slide mechanism were effective during the formation of the first two sections. Thechaotic section, however, was formed by block accumulationdue to tectonic activity.The Aladağ ophiolitic melange acquired its lithostratigraphic features within the Senonian basin which was formed over the Upper Triassic-Liower Cretaceous platform carbonate basement.The contact between the ophiolitic melange and the carbonates which constitute the basement of the melange isdepositional. Aladağ ophiolitic melange should be considered as an autochthonous litostratigraphic unit which acquiredits properties in the site of formation.

  • olistostrome

  • The Aladağ ophiolitic melange

  • uniform basal sequence

  • Taurus mountains

  • Bailey, E,B. ve McCallien, W.J., 1950, Ankara Melanjı ve Anadolu şariyajı: Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enst. Der., 40, 17-22.

  • Barret, J.T. vl Spooner, E.T.C., 1977, Ophiolitic breccias associated with allochtounous oceanic cructal rocks in the east Ligurian Apennines, Italy. A comparison with observation from rifted Ridges: Earth Planet, Sci. Lett., 35, 79-91.

  • Binmen thai, MM., 1952, Das taurische Hochgebirge des Alaöag, neuere Forschungen seiner Geographic Stratigraphie und Tektonik; Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enst., Seri D, 6, 136 s.

  • Dewey, J.F. ve Bird, J.M., 1970, Mountain belts and the new global tectonics: . Geophys. Res., 75, 2625-2847.

  • Dimitrijevie, D.M. ve Mimitrijevic, N.M., 1973, Olistostrom melange in the Yugoslavian Dinarides and Latl Mesozoic plate tectonics: J. Geol., 81, 328-340.

  • Gannser, A., 1974, The ophiolitic melange, a world-wide problem on Tethyan examples: Eclogea Geol# Helv., 67/3, 479-507.

  • Glennie, W.K.; Boeuf, A.G.M.; Hughes - Clarke, W.M.; Moody - Stuart M.; Pilaar, H.P.W. ve Reinhardt, M.B., 1974, Geology of the Oman mountains: Verh. Kanin, Nedarlanda Geol. mijnb. Genoot., 31, 423 s.

  • Hall, ît., 1976,Ophiolite emplacement and the evolution of the Taurus suture zone, southeastern Turkey: Geol. Soc. America Bull., 87, 1078-1088.

  • Ricou, L.E., 1971, L»e croissant ophiolitique p4ri-arabe, une ceinture de nappes mises en place &u Cr^tac6 superieur Rev. Geogr. Pyhs. G4ol. Dyn., 13 (4), 327-349.

  • Robertson, A.H.F., 1977, The Moni Melange, Cyprus; an olistostrom formed at an destructive plate margin: I. Geol. Soc. London, 133, 447-466.

  • Saleeby. J., 1979, Kaweah serpantinite melange, southwest Sierra Nevada foothills, California: Geol. Soc. America Bull., 90, 29-46.

  • Tekili, O., 1980, Aladaglarm yapısal evrimi: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bûlt., 23/1, 11-14.

  • Sedimentological Studies of the Continental Formations Around the Region of Çankın-Çorum Basin
    Muhittin Şenalp
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    Abstract: A succession of marine and continental rocks which ranges in age from. Lower Eocene to Pliocene has beenwell preserved in the Sungurlu (Çorum) region of central Turkey. The Sungurlu Group consists of two marine formations.The Cevherli Formation is a turbidite sequence which has been deposited by southward prograding submarine fan.There are also olistoliths and olistostromes which are closely associated with turbidites. The Kepir Tepe Formation iscomposed of limestone, marl and lenses of conglomerate and sandstone. This formation has been deposited in a shallowwater environment.Since Late Middle Eocene time, continental sediments have been deposited in the area. The Büyükpolatlı Formation (UpperEocene-Miocene) consists of red coloured conglomerate, sandstone and mudstone. These sediments have been deposited in afluvial environment dominated by meandering rivers. The direction of sediment transportation was from northeast to southwest.The Terzili Formation is composed of alternations of gypsum, mudstone and fine-grained sandstone which have been deposited inan interior playa (continental sabkha) environment. The Büyükşeyhefendi Tepe Formation (Pontian) is composed of poorlybedded, poorly sorted conglomerate, sandstone and mudstone which appear to have been originated in an alluvial fanenvironment on the foot of the high mountain range.

  • olistoliths

  • olistostromes

  • mudstone

  • gypsum

  • Çankın-Çorum Basin

  • Akarsu, I.,. 1959, Çorum Bölgesinin Jeolojisi: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült, 7, 19-30.

  • Alien, J.R.L., 1964 Studies in fiuviatiîe sedimentation; six cyclothems from the Lower Old Red Sandstone, Anglo -Welsh Basin: Sediinentology, 3, 163-198.

  • Allen,` J.R.I*.* 1965, Fining-upward cycles in alluvial successions: Geol. J., 4, 229-246.

  • Butler, G.F., 1970, Modern ©vaporite deposition and geochemistry of coexisting brines, the Sabkha, Trucial Coast, Arabian Gulf: Jour. Sed. Petrology, 39, 70-89.

  • Krgnn, O.N., 1977, Sedimentology of Tertiary evaporites Uğurludağ area Çankırı-Çorum Basin Turkey, Yayınlanmamış doktora tezi. Imperial College of Science and Technology, London.

  • EMend, P.F., 1965, Fluviatile sedimentary structures in the wood by series (Devonian`) of Spitsbergen,: Sedimentology, 5, 39-68.

  • Glennie, K.W., 1970, Desert sedimentary environments. Developments in sedimentology: Elsevier, Amsterdam, 14, 2S22 s.

  • Ketin, 1, 1962, 1:500.000 ölçekli Türkiye Jeoloji Haritası açıklama kitabı, Sinop paftası: Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitüsü Yayını, Ankara, 135 s.

  • Kinsman, D.J., 1966, Gypsum and anhydrite of Recent age, Trucial Coast, Persian Gulf: Second Symposium on salt, de Cleveland, Ohio, Northern Geol. Soc, 302-326.

  • Kukal, Z., 1971, Geology of recent sediments. Academic Press, London, 491 s.

  • Maiklem, W.R.; Debout. D.G., va Glaister, It P., 1969, Classification of anhydrite a practical approch: Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, 17, 211-235.

  • Norman, T.N.; Gökçen, S.L., ve genalp, M., 1980, Sedimentation pattern in Central Anatolia at the Cretaceous-^Tertiary boundary: Cretaceous Research, 1, 61-84.

  • Şenalp, M., 1974, Tertiary sedimentation in part of the Çanlurı-Çorum Basin, Central Anatolia: yayınlanmamış doktora tezi, Imperial College of Science and Technology, Landon, 386 s.

  • Şenalp, M., 1981, (baskıda) Çankm-Çorum Havzası`nın Sungurlu bölgesindeki türbidit, olistostrom ve olistoîit fasivesleri: Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enat. Bülteni.

  • Shearman, D.J., 1966, Origin of marine evaporites by diagenesis: Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (Newcastle-upon-tyne) Trans., sec. B, 75, 208-215.

  • Wentworth, C.K., 1922, A scale of grade and calss terms for clastic sediments: J. Geology., 30, 377-392,

  • Williams, H.; Turner, F.J., ve Gilbert, CM., 1954, Petrography. W.J. Freeman CO., San Fransisco, 406 s.

  • Stratigraphy of the Homa-Akdağ (Denizli) Region
    Ali Öztürk
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    Abstract: Varied aged rock units of distinct fades and different position have been defined, as a result of investigations caried out in the research area. The oldest of these rocks are the schists covering the Menderes Massif of sedimentary origin. The metamorphics are composed of various schists with metamorphic grades not exeed the green-schistfaeies, and their age is probably Sillurian. The cover schists are folloved upward by the marbles which outcrop inwider areas. It is thought that the age marbles, which appear to be conformamle with, underlying schists althoughthere is probable a stratigraphic gap between them, is Devonian.Rhyolites constitute the origin of Kocayayla metamorphics which is an autochthonous mass like the MenderesMassif. No direct connection with the Menderes Massif is not certain yet, but it may possibly be correlated with thecover-schists of the Menderes Massif. The formations starting from Liassic and continuing up to the end of Lutetian have autochthonous positions. Liassic agedDerealanı formation which commences with basal conglomerates and developes in pelitic facies, Dogger aged Akdağ formation,Upper Jurassic aged Çamoluk formation consisting of siliceous pelagic limestones from the Jurassic system. The rocks belonging toCretaceous system display normal transition with Jurassic units. Akçay for mation of Lower Cretaceous age is developed in pelagicandneritic limestone fades. These limestones are conformably overlain by the pelagic limestones of Paleocene age. Theautochthonous units terminate with red clayey limestones of Lutetian age. Resting on these are overthrustedallochthonous units ofvarious age and lithology. Emplacement age of the allochthonous units is Upper Eocene.Çağlayan formation is regressive series which is represented by lacustrine deposits. limestones exist at the base, red clays withconglomerate and sandstone interca lations comprise the Upper levels, and the bedded conglomerates derived from nearbysources are present at the top.Lithologic charecter of the rocks exposed in the research area and their distribution indicate that different sedimantary environments were existent within short intervals, and generally these environments were deepening fromeast to west.

  • Menderes Massif

  • schist

  • marble

  • Denizli

  • The Geology and Blueschist Metamorphism of The OphioUtes in Northwest Turkey (Tavşanlı - Kütahya)
    Aral Okay
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    Abstract: Peridotite, ophiolite, blueschist and marble are the major rock types northeast of Tavşanlı, In the areastudied a large peridotite massif tectonically overlies an ophiolite melange. This ophiolite melange consists of volcanic and sedimentary rocks (spilite, pyroclastie, chert, shale, pelagic limestone etc.), and lenses of serpentinite. Althoughrocks of the ophiolite melange appear unmetamorphosed in the field, a detailed petrographic study has revealed that allhave undergone an incipient high pressure/low temerature metamorphism. Bluschists sensu stricto are produced by theprogressive metamorphism of this ophiolite sequence. Two stages of blueschist metamorphism have been recognised inthe field and by petrography. In the first stage the typical paragenisis of lawsonite-sodic pyroxene-ehlorite is produced inthe metabasites. Sodic amphibole develops in the second stage through a reaction between sodic pyroxene and chlorite. Thesubsequently produced glaucophane lawsonite blueschists are the most extensive lithology in the studied area. They lieconformably on a thich marble sequence, which has undergone the same high pressure/low temperature metamorphism anddef ormation as the surrounding blueschists.

  • ophiolite

  • Peridotite

  • blueschist metamorphism

  • amphibole

  • Altınlı, E., 1975, Orta Sakarya Jeolojisi: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti 50. yılı uluslararası jeoloji kongresi tebliğleri, Ankara* 159-191.

  • Ataman, G., 1974, Bevue geochronologique des massifs plutoniquee et metamorphiquesd de FAnatolieıHacettepe Bull. Nat. Sel. and Engineering, 3, 75-87.

  • Ayarğlu, H., 1979, Bozüyük metamorfitlerinin petrokimyasal özellikleri: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült, 22, 101-108.

  • Brinkmann, R., 1966, Geotektoniscfae Glİederung vonWestanatoHen: N. Jb. Geol. Palaeont Mh.b 603-618.

  • Brinkmann, R., 1972, Mesozoic troughs and crusta! structure in Anatolia: Geol. Soc, America BulL, 83, 819-826.

  • Cann, J.R. ve Moor©, D.G., 1978, Oceanic baslment probed: Geotimes, 23, 17-19.

  • Carpenter, M. A ve Okay ,A. I., 1978, Topotactic replacement of augite by omphacite in a blueschist rock from NW Turkey: Min. Mag., 42, 435-438.

  • Crawford, W.A. ve Fyfe, W.S., 1965, Calcite, aragonite equilibrium at 100°C: Science, 144, 1569-1570.

  • Çoğulu, E., 1967, Etude petrographique de la region de Mihalıççık (Turquie): Schweias. Min.Petrogr. Mitt. 47, 683-824.

  • Çoğulu, E. ve Krummenacher, D., 1967, Problemes glochronometriques dans la partie NW de FAnatolie Centrale (Turquie): Schweiz. Min. Petrogr. Mitt, 47, 825-833.

  • Göncüoğlu, C, 1980, Yüksek basınç mineral parajenezleri: Yeryuvarı ve însan, 5, 21- 80.

  • Gürpınar, O., 1976, Bilecik-înegöl-Yenişehir arasının jeolojisi U-ft1 Bilecik Kireçtagının mühendislik özellikleri: İstanbul Üniv. Fen Fak. Mec. SeriB, 40, 83-113.

  • Holzer, H.F. ve Colin, H., 1957, Beitrage zur Ophiolithfrage in Anatolien: Jb. Geol., Bundesanst,, 100, 231-237.

  • Jamieson, J.C., 1953, Phase equilibrium in the system calcite-aragonite; J. Chem.Phys., 21. 1385-1390.

  • Johannes, W. ve Puhan, D., 1971, The calcite-aragonite transition, reinvestigated: Contrib., Mineral. Petrol.,, 81,, 28-38.

  • Kaaden, G., 1966, The significance and distribution of glaucophane rocks inTurkey: M.T.A.Dergisi, 67, 37-67.

  • Kalafatçıoğkı, A., 1964, Balıkesir Kütahya arasındaki bölgenin jeolojisi: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 9, 46-62.

  • Kaya, O., 1972, Tavganli yöresi ofiyoîit sorununun ana çizgileri: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült.., 15, 26-108.

  • Kulaksız, S., 1977, Sivrihisar kuzeybatı yöresinin jeolojisi:` Doktora tezi, yayınlanmamış, Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Ankara.

  • Lîsenbee, A., 1971, The Orhaneli ultramafic-gabbro thrust sheet and its surroundings: Campbell, A.S. ©d., Geology and History of Turkey
  • Iıünel, T., 1967, Geology of Sübren, Karaalan-Yukarı Çaölayan area, Eskişehir county, Turkey: Doktora tezi, yayınlanmamış, Bristol Üniversitesi, İngiltere.

  • MTA Enstitüsü, 1968, 1:500.000 ölçekli Ankara jeoloji haritası: Maden Tetkik Arama Ens t, Ankara.

  • MTA Enstitüsü, 1964, 1:500.000 ölçekli İstanbul, İzmir ve Zonguldak jeoloji haritaları: Maden Tetkik Arama Enst, Ankara

  • Okay, A L, 1978, Sodic pyroxenes from metabasltes in the Eastern Mediterranean: Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 68, 7-11.

  • Okay, A. î., 1980a, Mineralogy, petrology and phase relations of glaucophane-lawsonite zone blueschists from the Tavganh region, Northwest Turkey: Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 72, 243-255.

  • Okay, 1., 1980b, Liawsonite zone blueschists and a sodic amphlbole producing reaction in the Tavşanlı region, Northwest Turkey: Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 75, 179-186.

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