Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni
Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni

Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni

1979 ŞUBAT Cilt 22 Sayı 1
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General Features of Antalya Nappes, Their Significance in The Paleogeography of Southern Margin of Thetys.
J. Marcoux Cnr Rag
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Abstract: The structural setting the general stratigraphy of the Antalya nappes complex are described Particular attention is given on the topic of the Triassic evolution. The epibaikalian paleozoic-eotriassic bassement isinitiated in middle Triassic time is general during the rest of the Triassic epoch. This block faulting processus iswell documented by several field evidence. This geodynamic event is in close relation with the early stage of riftingcorresponding in this part of the alpine system with the birth of a new oceanic realm: the alpine Neotethys.Finally a palinspastic reconstruction is proposed.

  • Antalya nappes

  • Neotethys

  • Paleogeography

  • Brunn, J.H., Argyriadis, I., Ricon, L.E., Poisson, A.t Marconx, İ., de Graeiansky, P.C., 1976, Elements majeurs de liasion entre Taurides et Henenides : Bull. Soc. Géol. Fr., (7), 18, 2, 481 -498.

  • Marcoux,J., 1976a, Les Les series triasiques des nappes â radiolarites et ophiolites d`Antalya (Turquie): homologies et signification probable: Bull. Soc. Géol. Fr., (7), 18,2 315-316.

  • Marcoux, J., 1976b, La Fracturation de la plateforıne scythienne et les stades initiaux du developpement de la Téthys al pine en Méditerranee orientale (Abs) : 4° Réun. Ann. Sc. Terre, Paris, 285.

  • Özgül, N., 1976, Toroslar`ın bazı temel jeoloji özellikleri Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült, 19; 65-78.

  • Ricon, L.E., Argyriadis, I., Marcoux, J., 1975, L`axe calcaire du Taurus: un alignement de fenetres arabo-africaines sous les nappes radiolaritiques, ophiolitiques et métamorphiques: Bull. Soc. Géol. Fr., (7), 17, 1024.1044.

  • Geology of The Mut- Ermenek- Silifke (Konya, Mersin) Area Petroleum Possibilities
    Abdullah Gedik Şevki Birgili Hazim Yilmaz Yusuf Rifat Yoldaş
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    Abstract: Formations age of Paleozoic  Mesozoic in the south northwest,  ophiolitic melange age ofMesozoic in the North  Northeast, as basement formations,  sediments overlaying them age of Eocene  Miocene crop out in the investigation area which is named as Mut-Silifke-Ermenek basin.Paleozoic  Mesozoic aged formations have intervals having the characteristics of source rocks, reservoir rocks  cap rocks. Oil shows occur in these formations, to the east  west of the basin. Structural traps are to be important in those parts of the basin.Miocene sedimentation started under continental conditions, but marine environment dominated toward the  of the epoch. Sediments deposited during Miocene epoch are only slightly deformed  they preserve their initialsubhorizental positions over large areas. Stratigraphic traps are expected to be important in these Tertiary areas,particularly where the reef limestones are covered by younger units.

  • ophiolitic melange

  • petroleum

  • reef limestones

  • Mut-Ermenek-Silifke

  • Akarsu, İ., 1960, Mut Bölgesinin jeolojisi. Maden Tetkik Arama Enst. Derg. No. 54, s. 36-45

  • Blumenthal, M., 1956, Karaman-Konya havzası güneybatısında Toros kenar silsileleri ve şist-Radiolarit formasyonunun stratigrafi meselesi. Maden Tetkik Arama Enst. Derg. No. 40

  • Demirtaşlı, E., 1973, Bolkardağların jeolojisi Cumhuriyetin 50. Yılı Yerbilimleri Kongresi Teb., s. 42.57

  • Demirtaslı, E., 1973, İran, Pakistan ve Türkiye`deki Alt Paleozoyik yaşlı kayaların stratigrafik korrelasyonu. Cumhuriyetin 50. Yılı Yerbilimleri Kongresi Teb., s. 204-222

  • Demirtaşlı, E., 1975, Toros kuşağının petrol potansiyeli. Türkiye üçüncü petrol kongresi, s. 55-61.

  • Gökten, E., 1976, Silifke yöresinin temel kaya birimleri ve Miyosen stratigrafisi Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült, 19, 2, s. 117-126.

  • Koçyiğit, A., 1976, Karaman-Ermenek (Konya) bölgesinde ofiyolitli melanj ve diğer oluşuklar. Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült, 19» 2, s. 103-116.

  • Nieoff, W., 1960, Mut 126/1 numaralı harita paftasının revizyon neticeleri hakkında rapor. Maden Tetkik Arama Enst. Der. Rap. No. 3390

  • Özer, B.-B. Duval - Courrier. P. - Lıetouzey, İ., 1974, AntalyaMut.Adana Neojen havzaları jeolojisi. Türk 2. Pet. Kong. Teb., s. 277-228.

  • Özgül, N., 1975, Torosların bazı temel jeoloji özellikleri. Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 19, 1, s. 65-78.

  • Schmitd, G.C., 1961, VII. Adana petrol bölgesinin stratigrafik nomenklatürü. Petrol Dairesi Negriyatı No. 6, s. 49-65.

  • Sezer, S., 1970, The Miocene stratigraphy of Mut region, southern Turkey (Doktora tezi). Birkbeck college London University

  • Ternek, Z., 1957, Adana havzasının Alt Miyosen (Burdigaliyen) formasyonları, bunların diğer formasyonlarla olan münasebetleri ve petrol imkânları. Maden Tetkik Arama Enst. Derg1. No. 49, s. 47-67.

  • Stratigraphy of The Ladik - Destek Region
    Ali Öztürk
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    Abstract: Rocks of different age variable facies crop out in the Lâdik - Destek region. The oldest of theserocks are the crystalline schists, as either Mesozoic / Precambrian. The appropriate age, however, should be at leastolder than Permian, since the limestones of Permian age overlie the schists whit an angular unconformity.Paleozoic in the region is represented by the Permian limestones typical eugeosynclinal rocks of Liassic lie overPermian rocks with another angular unconformity. Dogger does not exist, instead the liassic rocks are unconformablyoverlain by the limestones of Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous age.In the research area, flysch. Limestone, flysch with volcanic contributions constitute the dominant faciesof the lower levels of Upper Cretaceous (Cenomenian-Turonian), Senonian - Maastrichtian respectively. These unitsdisplay a conformable relationship. Interrelations of the rocks of this region indicate the occurrence of a gradualtransgression throughout the mesozoic Era.Tertiary comprises the formations of marine - originated volcanic Lutatian continental Neogene.

  • Limestone

  • schist

  • flysch

  • Ladik - Destek region

  • Alp, D., 1972, Amasya yöresinin jeolojisi: İ.Ü. Fen Fakültesi Monognaf ileri, 22, İstanbul, S. 1-101

  • Blumenthal, M., 1943, Lâdik deprem hattı: M.T.A. Mec, 1/33, 153-162

  • Blumenthal, M., 1945, Kuzey Anadolu`nun bazı ofiyolit mıntıkaları, Liastan evveli devreye mi aittir? M.T.A. Mec. 1/53, 115-124

  • Blumenthal, M., 1950, Orta ve Aşağı Yeşilırmak Bölgelerinin (Tokat, Amasya, Havza, Erbaa, Niksar) jeolojisi hakkında: M.T.A. Ens. Yayını, Seri D, No. 4, S. 1-153

  • Öztürk, A., 1968, Çerkeş.- Eskipazar-Gerede Bölgesinin Jeolojisi: A.Ü. Fen Fakültesi Jeoloji Kürsüsü, Ankara. (Yayımlanmamış).

  • Tokay, M., 1973, Kuzey Anadolu Fay Zonunun Gerede ile Ilgaz arasındaki kısmında jeolojik gözlemler: Kuzey Anadolu Fayı ve deprem simpozyumu, Ankara ,12-29.

  • The Stratigraphy Tectonics of The Middle Eastern Aegean Depression
    Orhan Kaya
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    Abstract: The middle eastern Aegean depression is formed by vertical displacements along the NB- to N-trending structural planes inherited from pre-Neogene time. On the west - east the depression is bounded by Karaburun-Midilli Menderes structural highs, respectively. From west to east it is divided in Foça depression, Yamanlar high, Akhisar depression, which constitute individual assemblages of tectonic-stratigraphic segments. Thefill of the middle eastern Aegean depression is composed of successively reoccuring sediments volcanic products.The rock units are mostly separated by erosional planes exhibit overlap  onlap relationships on boundingstructural highs. The thickest lower portion of the Neogene succession is restricted to the Foça depression; theuppermost portion occupies both the Foça, Akhisar depressions.  During the Neogene, the NE- to N-trending structural-stratigraphic segments have been fragmented by NW- toWNW-trending faults. Both NE- to N-, NW- to WNW-trending structural lines were continuously acted ashinges. WNW- to W-trending structural features are lately formed characterized by southward tilted fault-blocks.Their E-W extensions are limted by NE- to N-trending structures.The absence of gradation between the NE- to N-trending (Miocene-Pliocene), NW- to WNW-trending (MiocenePliocene) WNW- to W-trending (?Pliocene-Quaternary) structural-stratigraphic systems suggest the different driving tectonic forces. The middle eastern Aegean depression seems to be a particular rift system with major linearityof NE-N direction. In the Quaternary surficial aqueous deposition, contemporary deformation, structural morphological evolution have been controlled affected by hinge lines inherited from Neogene. To geophysical criteriathe depression preserves its characteristics of rift structure.

  • Aegean depression

  • Neogene

  • rift

  • transgressive

  • Akartuna, M. 1962, On the geology of Izmir-Torbalı: MTA, Bull. 59, 11-19.

  • Allan, T.D. ve Morelli, C. 1970, Bathymetry, total magnetic intensity, free-air gravity anomaly, simple Bouguer anomaly map of Ionian and Aegean Seaes: Inst, Idrografico della Marina- Genova-Maggio.

  • Arpat, E. ve Bingöl, E. 1969, Ege bölgesi greben sisteminin gelişimi üzerine düşünceler: M.T.A. Derg., 73, 1-8.

  • Bingöl, E. 1976, Batı Anadolu`nun jeotektonik evrimi: M.T.A. Derg., 86, 14-35.

  • Brinkmann, R. 1971, The geology of western Anatolia: Campbell, A.S., ed., eGology and history of Turkey, da: Petrol. Expl. Soc. of Libya, 171_190.

  • Brinkmann, R., Feist, R., Marr, W.V., Mickel, E., Schlimm, W- ve Walter, H. R. 1970, Soma dağlarının jeolojisi: M.T.A. Derg., 74, 41-56.

  • Dora, Ö. 1964, Geologisch-lagerstâttenkundliche Untersuchungen im Yamanlar Gebirge: M.T.A. Yayın, 116, 68s.

  • Ergin, K. 1966, Türkiye ve civarının episantr haritası hakkında: T. J.K. Bült. X, 122-125.

  • Eşder, T. ve Şimşek: §. 1976, Geology of Izmir-Seferihisar geothermal area: Second United Nations Symposium of the development of the Recources, Proseedings, 1, 349-361.

  • Mistardis, G. 1976. Reeherches sur revolution du relief dans le Centre.Ouest Egéen au Miocene et au Pliocene: Bull. Soc. géol. France, (7), XVIII, 2, 217-223.

  • Needham, H.D., Le Pichon, X., Melguen, M., Pautot, G., Renard, V., Avedik, F. ve Carre, M. 1973, North Aegean Sea trough 1972 Jean Charcot cruise: Bull. geol. Soc. Greece, X, 1, 152-153.

  • Philippson, A., 1918 Kleinasien: Hab. d. reg. geol., 22, 312 s.

  • Öngür, T. 172a, İzmir-Urla jeotermal araştırma sahasına ilişkin jeoloji raporu: M.T.A. raporu, 4835, 59s.

  • Öngür, T. 1972b, Dikili-Bergama jeotermal araştırma sahasına ilişkin jeoloji raporu: M.T.A. raporu, 5444, 36 s.

  • Sanver, M. 1974, Ege bölgesi havadan manyetik haritasının ild boyutlu filtrele rve istatistik yöntemlerile analizi: 1st. Teknik Üniv. Maden Fak. Tez. 161 s.

  • Savaşçın, Y. 1974, Batı Anadolu andezit ve bazalt jenez sorununa katkılar: T.İ.K., Bült., XVII, 87-173.

  • Yılmaz, Ö. 1975, A combined analysis of gravity and magnetic data from the Aegean Sea: T.P.A.O. raporu, 28 s.

  • Çördük Olistostromes
    Ali Koçyiğit
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    Abstract: In the study area mainly three units crop out. These are metamorphic rocks "Tokat Massif", ophioliticmelange pelagic limestones. The last unit that is pelagic limestones which are alternated with turbidite sandstones, overly unconformably the other two units, which were previously mentioned, The first the second unitshave been termed as the basement rocks; the last unit has been termed as the cover rock.The cover rock, especially in the lower parts of it, contains monogenic heterogenic olistostromes whosecomponents deriving from the basement rocks. These olistostromes have been termed as Çördük Olistostromes. Çördük Olistostromes cover rock, which contains them are Campanian-Maestrichtian age.The presence of the ophiolitic melange olistostromes in the cover rock suggests a subduction of plate theemplacement of ophiolitic melange before Campanian-Maestrichtian; then the cover rock has started to depositon the consuming plate, the olistostromes have formed; finally, one side of the basin has raised continuously duringthe geologic evolution of the region.

  • ophiolitic melange

  • pelagic limestone

  • Çördük Olistostromes

  • Tokat Massif

  • Abbate, E., Bortolottı, V. ve Passerını, P., 1970, Olistostromes and olistolıths: Sedimantary Geology, 4,3/4, 521-558

  • Beneo, E., 1955, Les résultats des etudes pour la recherche petrolifere en Sicile: Proc. 4th World Petrol Congr., Roma, 1-13

  • Beneo, E., 1956, Accumuli terzlari da risedimentazione (olistostroma) neli Appennio centrale e frane sottomarine: Enstensione tempospaziale del fenomeno: Boll. Serv. Geol. d`Italia, 78, 1-2, 291-319.

  • Dunbar C.O. ve Rodgers, J., 1957, Principles of stratigraphy : Wiley, New York, 356.

  • Elter, P. ve Schwab, K,, 1959. Nota illustrative della caita geologiea all 1/50,000 della regione Carro-Zeri-Pontremoli: Bolt Sot;. Geol. Ital., 78, 2, 157-319,

  • Elter, P. ve Trevisan, L., 1973, Olistostromes in the Tectonic Evolution of the Northern Appennines: Gravity and Tectonics, J. Viley and Sons, New York, 175-178.

  • Flores, G., 1959, Evidence of slump phenomena (olistostromes) in areas of hydrocarbons exploration in Sicily: World Petrol Congr., Proc, 5th, N.Y., 1959, 13, 259-275.

  • Gansser, A., 1959, Ausseratpine Ophlolith probleme: Eclogae (Jeol. Helv., 52, 2, 659-680.

  • Gökçen, S.L, 1974, Erztncan-Refahiye Bölgesi Sedimanter Jeolojisi 1: Olistoit, Türbidit ve Olistostrom Fasiyesler!: Hacettepe Fen ve Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi, 4, 179-205.

  • Gökçen, S.L. ve Şenalp, M., 1975, Kayma oluşukları, olistostromlar ve Türbidit fasiyeslerini ayırıcı ana jeolojik, sedimantolojik ö1çütler TBTAK.V. Bilim Kongresi Tebliğleri (Yerbilimleri Seksiyonu), İzmir, 57-78.

  • Hoedemaeker, Ph. J., 1973, Olisthostromes and other delapsionai deposits, and their occurrence in the region of Moratall (Prov. of Murda, Spain): Scripta.Geol., İ9, 1-207.

  • Hsü, J.K., 1968, Principles of melange and their bearing on the Franciscan Knoxville paradox: Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 79, 8, 1063-1074

  • Koçyiğit, A., 1976, Karaman-Ermenek (Konya) bölgesinde ofiyolitli melanj ve diğer oluşuklar: Türkiye Jeol, Kur.. Bült., 19, 2 103-116,

  • Koçyiğit, A., 1978, Sarıkaya-Üçbaş (Karaman) yöresinin Jeolojisi: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült, 21, 1, 77-86

  • Merla, G., -1961, Geologia dell`Appenniino settentrionole-: Boll. Soc. Geol. Ital., 70, 1, 95-383.

  • Rigo De Righi, M. ve Cortesini, A. 1964, Gravity tectonics in foothills structure belt of Southeast Turkey: Bull, Am. Assoc, Petrol; Geologists 4, 18, 1911-1937

  • Sedimentary Properties of The Haramiköy Conglomerates (Nallıhan NE/Ankara)
    Nizamettin Kazanci
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    Abstract: The topic of this study is the conglomerates consisting of large size components, 320 m thick having11 km lateral extent, observed in flysch type sediments in the NE of Nallıhan, The unit consists of only limestone metamorphic rock fragments, includes approximately 10% matrix; normal inverse gradation is frequentlyobserved. The size of constituents gets smaller from west to east from base to top. Grain orientation is verynoticeable parallel to outcrop continuity. It was assumed that this resedimented conglomerate had been formedby debris flow.

  • flysch

  • conglomerate

  • Nallıhan -Ankara

  • Aalto, K.R., ve Dott, R.H., 1970, Late mesozoic conglomeratic flysch in southwestern Oregon, and the problems of transport of gravel deep water; Lajoie, J. ed., Flysch sedimentology iri North America da: Geol. Assoc. Canada, Spec Pub. 7, 53-65.

  • Altınlı, İ.E. 1977, Geology of the eastern territory of Nallıhan (Ankara province): 1st. Üniv. Fen Fak. Mecm. seri B, 42, 29-44

  • Curry, R.R., 1966, Observations of alpine mudflows in the Ten Mile Range, Central Colorado: Geol. Soc. America Bull., 77, 771-776.

  • Davies I.C., ve Walker, R.G., 1974, Transport and deposition of resedimented conglomerates, The Cap Enrage formation, Cambro-Ordovician, Gaspe, Quebec: Jour, Sed. Petrology, 44, 1200- 1216

  • Enos, P., 1969, Anatomy of a flysch: Jour. Sed. Petrology, 39, 680- 723.

  • Fisher, R.V., 1971, Features of coarse-grained, high concentration fluids and their deposits: Jour. Sed. Petrology, 41, 916-927.

  • Fisher, R.V., ve Mattinson, J.M., 1968, Wheeler Gorge turbidite conglomerate series, California; inverse grading: Jour. Sed. Petrology, 38, 1013-1023.

  • Gökçen, S.L., ve Şenalp, M., 1975, Kayma oluşuklukları, olistostromlar ve türbidit fasiyeslerini ayırıcı ana jeolojik/sedimantolojik ölçütler: TBTAK V. Bilim Kong., Yerbilimleri tebliğleri, 57-78.

  • Hampton, M.A., 1972a, Transport of ocean sediments by debris flow (abs.): Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., 56, 622.

  • Hampton, M.A. 1972b, The role of the subaqueous debris flow in generating turbidity currents: Jour. Sed. Petrology, 42, 775- 793.

  • Hampton, M.A., 1975, Competence of fine-grained debris flows: Jour. Sed. Petrology, 45, 834-844.

  • Hendry, H.E., 1972, Breccias deposited by mass flow in the Breccia Nappe of the French Prealps: Sedimentology, 18, 277-292

  • Hendry, H.E.i, 1976, The orientation of discoidal clasts in resedimented conglomerates, Cambro-Ordovician, Gaspe, Eastern Quebec: Jour. Sed. Petrology, 46, 48-57.

  • Hubert, J.F., 1967, Sedimentology of prealpine flysch sequences, Switzerland: Jour. Sed. Petrology, 37, 885-907.

  • Kalafatçıoğlu, A., ve Uysallı, H., 1964, Beypazarı-Nallıhan-Seben civarının jeolojisi: Maden Tetkik Arama Ens. Derg., 62, 1-11.

  • Kuenen, Ph. H., 1958, Problems concerning source and transportation of flysch sediments: Geol. Mijnb., 20, 239-339

  • Lindsay, J.F., 1966, Carboniferous subaqueous mass movement in the Manning Macleay basin, Kempsey, New South Wales: Jour. Sed. Petrology, 36, 719-732.

  • Lindsay, J.F., 1968, The development of the clast fabric in mudflows: Jour. Sed. Petrology, 38, 1242-1253.

  • Lowe, D.R., 1976, Grain flows and grain flow deposits: Jour, Sed. Petrology, 46, 188-199.

  • Middleton, G.V., 1970, Experimental studies related to problems of flysch sedimentation; Lajoie, J., ed.f Flysch sedimentology in North America da: Geol. Assoc. Canada, Spec. Pub., 7, 253-272.

  • Middleton, G.V., ve Hampton, M.A., 1973, Sediments gravity flow; mecanics of flow and deposition; Middleton, G.V.,, ve Bouma, A.H., eds., Turbidites and deep water sedimentation da: SEPM, Los Angelos, 138 s.

  • Mountjoy, E.W., ve Playford, P.E., 1972, Submarine megabreccia debris flow and slumped blocks of Devonian of Australia and Alberta; a comparison (abs.): Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., 56, 641.

  • Norman, T., 1975., Çankırı-Çorum-Yozgat bölgesinde Alt Tersiyer - yaşlı sedimentlerde paleoakıntılar ve denizaltı heyelanları: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült. 18, 103-110.

  • Rittenhouse, G., 1944, A visual method of estimating two dimensional sphericity: Jour. Sed. Petrology, 13/2, 79-82.

  • Rochleau, M., ve Lajoie, J., 1974, Sedimentary structures in resedimented conglomerates of the Cambrian flysch, L`Islet, Quebec: Jour. Sed. Petrology, 44, 826-836.

  • Rondot, J., 1956, 1/100 000 lik 39/2 (güney kısmı) ve 39/4 no`lu paftaların jeolojisi: MTA raporu, No. 2517, Ankara, yayımlanmamış.

  • Sanders, J.E., 1965, Primary sedimentary structures formed by turbidity currents and related sedimentation mechanisms: SEPM Spec. Pub., 12, 192-219,

  • Stanley, D.J., 1974, Pebbly mud transport in the head of Wilmington Canyon: Mar. Geol., 16, 1-8.

  • Stauffer, P.H., 1967, Grain flow deposits and their implications, Santa Ynez Mountains, California: Jour. Sed. Petrology, 37, 487-508.

  • Türkünal, S., 1963, Nallıhan-Mudurnu-Seben arasında kalan bölgenin jeolojisi: Türkiye Jeo. Kur. Bült., 8, 55-83.

  • Ünlü, M.R., ve Balkaş, Ö., 1975, Kösenözü kaplıcası - Belenören (Bolu - Ankara) alanının jeolojisi ve jeotermal enerji olanakları: MTA raporu, No. 5594, yayımlanmamış.

  • Varol, B., 1977, Haymana Alt Mestrihtiyen istifinin sedimenter özellikleri (GB Ankara): TBTAK Doğa Derg., 1/5, 155-166.

  • Walker, R.G., 1967, Upper flow regime bed forms in turbidites of Hatch formation, Devonian of New York State: Jour. Sed. Petrology, 37, 1052-1059.

  • Walker, R.G., 1975a, Upper Cretaceous resedimented conglomerates at Wheeler Gorge, California: Jour. Sed. Petrology, 45, 105-112.

  • Walker, R.G., 1975b, Generalized facies models for resedimented conglomerates of turbidite association: Geol. Soc. America Bull., 86, 737-748.

  • Walker, R.G., ve Mutti, E.,, 1973, Turbidites facies association; Middleton, G.V., ve Bouma, A.H., ed., Turbidites and deep water sedimentation da: SEPM short course notes, 119-157.

  • Wenthworth, C.K., 1922, A scale of grade and class term for clastic sediments; J. Geology, 30. 377-392.

  • Petrography Microsedimentary of Turbiditic Limestones Seben (Bolu) Region
    Baki Erdoğan Varol
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    Abstract: The most important part of the Upper Cretaceous limestone sequence cropping out on the Seben town,has turbiditic character. The shallow sea carbonate clastics, which mixed with pelagic muds transported with turbidcurrents, resedimented on the abissal plain.Determined samples shows the existence of four different llmestones occurence in the region. 1) Nongraded Iimestone (inclucling lime ball), 2) Graded limestones, 3) Laminated lfmestones, 4) Pelagic limestones with volcanicpartlcules.Carbonate noncarbonate turbidites alternate in the one part of the laminated beds. Small scale sedimentarystructures are seen very widely in these beds. They are load casts, brush mark, volcaneous sands cross laminations.

  • Turbiditic limestones

  • Laminated lfmestones

  • Pelagic limestones

  • Seben-Bolu

  • Yılmaz, Y.,
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    Ayaroğlu, H.,
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    Evirgen, M.M.,
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    Erler, A.,
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    Toker, V.,
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    Aslan, R.,
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    Pickford, M., Ertürk, Ç.,
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    Şen, Ş., Rage, J.C.,
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