Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni
Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni

Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni

1982 ŞUBAT Cilt 25 Sayı 1
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Petrographic - Petrologic Study of Güneş - Sogucak Region, Divriği/Sivas, Eastern Turkey
Hasan Bayhan Orhan Baysal
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Abstract: Study area is located in Çetinkaya-Divriği Area, Sivas district Eastern Turkey. Petrographical andpetrological studies have been carried out on the intrusive and extrusive rocks of the area.Alkali metasomatism related to Dumluca Intrusion (syenitic - granitic) has effected Güneş Ophiolite rocks andhas caused the scapolitization of basic plagioclases and biotitization of clinopyroxenes. Besides wide spread serpentinization, disseminated - type Ni - mineralization has been observed in ultramafic rocks. It is found that gabbroicrocks show calcalkaline affinity while spilite - diabase rocksshow tholeiitic and calcalkaline trend and they most probably formed in an oceanic environment. Dumluca Intrusion has calcalkaline character. Neogene Volcanics are cqn^sist mostly of basaltic and trachytic rocks and have calcalkaline affinity possibly formed in an island are environment.

  • gabbro

  • basalt

  • trachytic

  • Sivas

  • Bauer, G., 1969, Bericht über das Nickel - Vorkommen ta Lagerstâttenraum Güneş bei Divriği - Türkei : Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enst, Derleme Rap. no. 4205, yayınlanmamış.

  • Bayhan, H., 1980, Güneş - Soğucak (Divriği - Sivas) yöresinin jeolojik, mineralojik, petrografik - petrolojik ve metalojenik incelenmesi : Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Yerbilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara, Doktora Tezi, 206 s., yayınlanmamış.

  • Bayhan, H. ve Baysal, O., 1981, Güneş - Soğucak (Divriği/ Sivas) Yöresindeki sülfür cevherleşmelerinin Mineralojik ve Jenetik İncelenmesi, Yerbilimleri, 8, 41 - 52.

  • Burri, C, 1959, Petrochemische Berechnungs - Methoden auf Equvalenter Grundlage : BirkMuser Verlag, Stuttgart, 334 s

  • Burri, C. ve Niggli, P., 1945, Die jüngen Eruptivgesteine des Mediterranen Orogens I : Pub. herausgeg. v.d. stiftung., Vulkaninstitut Immanuel Friedlaender, 3, Zürich, 334 s.

  • Can, A., 1970, Sivas - Divriği, Güneş - Soğucak köyleri nikel zuhuru jeolojik etüdü : Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enst., Derleme Rap. no. 5108, yayınlanmamış.

  • Irvine, T.N. ve Baragar, W.R.A., 1971, A guide to the chemical classification of the commen volcanic rocks : Can. Jour. Earth Sci., 8,523 - 548.

  • Kay, R., Hubbard, N.J. ve Gast, P.W., 1970, Chemical Characteristics and origin of Ridge Volcanic Rocks. Jour. Geophys. Research, 75,227 - 255.

  • Koşal, C, 1965, Divriği civarı jeolojisi ve magmatojen cevher yatakları : Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enst., Derleme Rap. no. 3743, yayınlanmamış.

  • Mac Donald, A., 1968, Composition and origin of Hawaiin Lavas : Geol. Soc. Amer. Mineral., 116, 477-552.

  • Metag Müh. Ltd. Şti., 1972, Nikel projesi, Çetinkaya - Divriği bölgesi arama raporu : Devlet Planlama Teşkilatı, Ankara, yayınlanmamış.

  • Miyashiro, A., 1975, Classification, characteristics and origin of ophiolites : J. Geology, 83,249 - 281.

  • Mohr, H.V.M., 1960, Divriği mmtıkasmdaki arsenik prospeksiyonu hakkında rapor : Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enst., Derleme Rap. no. 2920, yayınlanmamış.

  • Müller, D., 1969, Mineralogisch - Lagerstâttenkundliche Begutactung von Erz der Cu - Ni - Vorkommen Güneş und Soğucak bei Divriği - Türkei : Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enst., Derleme Rap. no. 4134, yayınlanmamış.

  • Streckeisen, A., 1976, To each plutonic rocks, its name : Earth. Sci. Rev., 12,1 - 33. proper

  • Stratigraphy and Geological Evolution of Ulukışla and Its Surroundings
    Fazli Yilmaz Oktay
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    Abstract: During the Early Tertiary, the southern part of the Tuzgölü Basin, Ulukışla area and its immediatesurroundings was an ocean from which an ophiolitic complex was emplaced southwards on the Bolkardağ region inLate Crateceous times. From the Tertiary to the present, three different groups of rock assemblages seperated fromeach - other by regional unconformities have developed in this basin in relation to Oceanic, and post oceanic periodsrespectively.These groups are named as Ulukışla, Kılan and Bohçadikmen groups accordingly and, taking litological differences in consideration, they are divided in members and formations.The Ulukışla group, which is the flysch of this oceanic basin comprises islands-arc volcanics and relatedcarbonates and elastics, and various turbiditic sediment deposited in its deeper parts.The Kılan group which represents the molasse of the basin is composed of evaporites, fresh-water carbonatesand terrestrial elastics.Finelly, the Bohçadikmen group, which is the post - oceanic cycle of this through, comprises several forms ofcontinental and lacustrine deposits.At the beginning of the Tertiary, the region was in the form of a closing ocean inwhich an island - arc complex was developing. Progressive closure occured from the north to the south in consequence of collisions of a consecutfve continent with an island - arc and its subsequent collision with a continent.

  • flysch

  • evaporite

  • island - arc

  • Ulukışla

  • Blumenthel, M. M., 1956, Yüksek Bolkardağın kuzey kenar bölgelerinin ve batı uzantılarının jeolojisi : MTA yayını, Seri D, No. 7, Ankara, 153 s.

  • Demirtaşlı, E., Bilgin, A. Z., Erenler, F., Işıklar, S., Sanlı, D. Y., Selim, M., Turhan, N., 1973. Bolkardağlarınm jeolojisi: Cumhuriyetin 50. yılı Yerbilimleri Kongresi, Tebliğler, MTA Yayını, Ankara, 608 s.

  • Erol, O., 1969, Tuzgölü Havzasının jeolojisi ve jeomorfolojisi : yayımlanmamış, T.B.T.A.K. araştırma raporu.

  • Folk, R. L., 1962, Spectral subdivision of limestone types 3 classification of carbonate rocks, Mem, A.A.P.G. 1., 62.

  • Freeh, F., 1916, Geology Kleinasiens im bereich der Bagdag bahn zeitschrift d, Deutsc. geol. Ges. BD 68, 322 s.

  • Ketin, t., Akarsu, I., 1965, Ulukışla Tersiyer Havzasının jeolojik etüdü hakkında rapor: TPAO, No.: 339.

  • Gözeğer, C, 1976, Eminlik - Kavuklu (Ulukışla) bölgesinin jeolojisi: yayımlanmamış 1.Ü.F.F, Jeol. Y. Müh. ligi diploması çalışması, 29 s.

  • Oktay, F. Y., 1973, Sedimentary and tectonic history of the Ulukışla area, southern Turkey: Yayımlanmamış Ph, D. tezi, Univ. of LONDON, 414 s.

  • Schaffer, F. X., 1903, Cicilia: Peterm. Mitteilgh. Erganzgsh. 151.

  • Tchihatscheff, P. de, 1869, Asie Mineure: Geologie, II-III, Paris 490, 552 s.

  • Yoldaş, R., 1973. Niğde - Ulukışla bitümlü şist alanının jeolojisi ve ekonomik olanakları ı yayımlanmamış MTA raporu, No.: 5050.

  • Turkish Gulf Oil Company, 1961, Regional geology and oil exploration in the Tuzgölü Basin of Central Anatolia: Petr. Adm. Publ. Bull. No.: 6, Ankara, 67 s.

  • Clay minerals observed in the Köprübaşı alluvial fan deposits and their characteristics.
    Hüseyin Yilmaz
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    Abstract: Accumulation of alluvial fan deposits of Köprübaşı, wich is a part of a fluvial sistem in the Köprübaşı basin, is contemperanous with Miocene block faulting. Under the control of this growth - faulting type tectonism, thick fluvial deposits having a wide range of material size from large blocks to clays have deposited. Alluvial fan deposits consist of boulder conglomerate unconformably resting on the metamorphic rocks at the base and,upward the section, Lower conglomerate with relatively small pebbles; sandstone interbedded with mudstone, silstone and conglomerate lenses; middle conglomerate; siltstone - mudstone and upper conglomerate underlying the lacustrine unit consisting of varicolored mudstone at the base and white cherty limestone at the top.These alluvial fan deposits consist of quartz, feldspar, mica garnet, clay, rutile, zircon, tourmaline, ilmenite, magnetite, pyrite, siderite, jarosite and apatite. Clay minerals in alluvial fan deposits are dioctahedral smectite and illite.Dioctahedral smectite has developed usually around small pebbles or grains as vitreous films and its dark green coloris striking. Illite is mostly detrital in origin. In some instances, the illite develops on feldspars as small flakes. Chlorite is detrital or occurs authigenically on biotites.Authigenic clay minerals occurring in the alluvial fan deposits reflect a silica-rich, slightly alkaline groundwater.

  • alluvial fan

  • conglomerate

  • siltstone

  • clay

  • Ayan, M., 1973, Salihli - Köprübaşı çevresindeki uranyum zuhurları oluşumu ve* çevresi jeolojisi : Prospektdr, 2,37-52.

  • Boray, A., 1966, Manisa - Gördes - Köprübaşı bölgesi uranyum zuhurları etüdüne ait rapor : M.T.A., Rapor no. 371, yayınlanmamış.

  • Deer, F.R.S., Howie, R.A., ve Zussman, J., 1977, An introduction to the Rockforming minerals : John Wiley and Sons, Inc., London, 264 - 274.

  • King, J.W., Tauchid, M., Frey, D., Basset, M., Çetintürk, İ, Aydmöz, F., ve Keçeli, B., 1976, Exploration for uranium in southwestern Anatolia s IAEA - SM - 208/6, 501-529.

  • Kubler, B., 1966, La crystalinite d`illite et les zones tout a fait superieures du metamorphisme : Colloq sur les Etages Tectoniques a la Baconnigre, 105-122.

  • Mac Ewan, D.M.C., Ruiz, A.A., ve Brown, G., 1961, Interstratified clay minerals; Brown, G., ed., X-Ray identification and crystal structure of clay minerals da : Mineralogical Society, London, 293 - 345.

  • Porrenga, D.H., 1966, Clay minerals in recent sediments of the Niger delta : Clay and Clay Min., Proc. of the 14 th Int. Conf., Pergamon Press, London, 221 - 233.

  • Taxonomic Revision of the Lower Jurassic (Liassic) Phylloeeratids of Northern Turkey (part I)
    Hayriye Füsun Alkaya
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    Abstract: The present work is based on over 3000 specimens obtained from various localities in the Bilecik,Amasya and Gümüşhane - Bayburt regions, in northern Anatolia. The fossiliferous strata are within the range ofUpper Sinemurian - Lower Pliensbachian, extending up in Toarcian only in the Gümüşhane - Bayburt region. Thefamily Phylloceratidae are represented in these rocks by four genera : Phylloceras, Partschiceras Hantkenicerasand Calliphylloceras. The following species are identified: Phylloceras (Phy`loceras) frondosum, P(P). lipoldi, P(P).hebertinom, P(P). meneghinii, Phylloceras (Zetoceras) zetes, P(Z). pseudozetes, P(Z). bonarellii, P(Z). oenotrium,P(Z). lavizzarii, Partschiceras striatocostatum, Hantkeniceras cf. hantkeni, H. pseudocalais, Calliphylloceras bicicolae.In this first part, the species of Phylloceras are described. The second part, which is in preparation, willdeal with genera Partschiceras, Hantkeniceras and Calliphylloceras.

  • Phylloceratidae

  • Lower Jurassic

  • Northern Turkey

  • Gümüşhane

  • Arkell, W. J., 1957, Moore R. C, ed., Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part L, Mollusça 4, Cephalopoda, Ammonoidea, da: Geol Soc. America ve Univ. Kansas Press.

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  • Fantini, N. ve Paganoni, C, 1953, Studi paleontologici sul Lias del Monte Albenza. Ammoniti del Lothringiano e del Domeriano : Riv. Ital. Paleont. Strat., 59, d2 65 - 90.

  • Fucini, A., 1896a, Faunula del Lias medio di Spezia : Boll. Soc. Geol. Ital., 15,123 -164.

  • Fucini, A., 1896b, Fauna del Lias medio del Monte Calvi presso Campiglia Marittima : Palaeont. Italica, 2, 203- 248.

  • Fucini, A., 1899, Ammoniti del Lias medio deirAppennino centrale esistenti nel Museo di Pisa : Palaeont. Italica, 5,145 -186.

  • Fucini, A., 1901-1905, Cefalopodi liassici del Monte di Cetona : Palaeont. Italica, 7, 1 - 89; 8, 131 - 218; 9, 125 - 185; 10, 275 - 289; 11, 93 -146.

  • Fucini, A., 1906, Fauna della zona a Pentacrinus tuberculatus Mill, di Gerfalco in Toscana : Boll. Soc. geol. Ital., 25, 613 - 654.

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  • Fucini, A, 1908b, Ammoniti dell`Appennino: Atti Soc. Tosc. Sc. Nat., Mem., 24, 79 - 94.

  • Fucini, A., 1923 -1935, Fossili demeriani die dintorni di Taormina: Palaeont. Fossili domeriani dintorni di Taormina: Palaeont. Ital. 26, 1920 (1923), 75-116; 27, 1921 (1924), 1-21; 29-30, 1923-28 (1929), 41-77; 31, 1929- 30 (1931), 93 -149; 35,1934 - 35 (1935), 85 -100.

  • Geczy, B., 1967, Ammonoides Jurassiques de Csernye, Montagne Bakony, Hongrie : Geol. Hung. Ser. palaeont. 35.

  • Geczy, B., 1972, Ammonite fauna from the Lower Jurassic standart profile at Lokut, Bakony Mountains, Hungary : Ann. Univ. Sci. Rol. Eötvös, 15,47 - 77.

  • Gemellaro, G.G., 1884, Su` fossili degli strati a Terebratula aspasia della contrada Rocche Rosse presso Galati (Provincia di Messina) : Giorn. Sci. nat. econ. Palermo, 16,167 - 218.

  • Gemmellaro, G.G., 1886, Sugli strati con Leptaena nel Lias superiore della Sicilia : Boll. R. Comit. Geol., 17.

  • Geyer, G., 1886, Über die Liassichen Cephalopoden des Hierlatz bei Hallstatt: Abh. k.k. Geol. Reich., 12.

  • Gugenberger, O., 1928, Beitrage zur Geologie Kleinasiens mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des anatolischen Lias : Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 137,259 - 282.

  • Gugenberger, O., 1929, Palaontologisch - stratigraphische studien über den anatolischen Lias : N. Jb. Miner. Geol. Pâlont., Beil-Bd., 62, 235-300, 371-466.

  • Hauer, F., 1856, Über die Cephalopoden aus dem Lias der nordöstlichen Alpen : Denkschr. k.k. Akad. Wiss. Wien, math - nat. KL, 11,1 - 86.

  • Hauer, F., 1861, Über die Ammoniten aus dem sogenannten Medolo der Berge Domaro und Guglielmo in Val Trompia, Prov. Brescia : Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, math - natw. KU 1,403 - 422.

  • Hyatt, A., 1900, Cephalopoda; Zittel K. A. ed. Textbook of palaeontology de : Maemillan, London, 502-604.

  • Kollarova Andrusovova, V., 1966, Les Cephalopodes du Lias du Slovensky kras : Nauka o Zemi, Ser. geol., 2.

  • Kovacs, L., 1939, Bemerkungen zur systematischen Einleitung der Jurassischen Phylloceraten : Abh. Min. Geol. Ins. St. Tisza Univ. Debrecen, 13,277 - 320.

  • Kovacs, L., 1942, Monographic der liassischen Ammonites des nördlichen Bakony i Geol. Hungarica, ser. Palaeont., 17,1 - 220.

  • Meister, E., 1913, Über den Lias in Nordanatolien nebst Bemerkunden Über das gleichzeitig vorkommende Rotliegende und die Gosaukreide : N. Jb. Min. Geol. Palaont., Bell - Bd., 35,499 - 548.

  • Meneghini, G., 1867 -1881, Monographic des fossiles du calcaire rouge ammonitique (Lias superieur) de Lombardie et de 1`Appennin central, 1 -184; Revision systematique, 185-242; Fossiles du Medolo. in Stoppani, A.,: Paleontologie Lombarde, 4 ser.

  • Monestier, J., 1934, Ammonites du Domerian de la region sud - est de PAveyron et de quelques regions de la Lozere a Texclusion des Amaltheides : Mem. Soc. geol. France, 10,23.

  • Negri, L., 1933-1936, Revisione delle ammoniti liassiche della Lombardia occidental : Palaeont. Ital., 34, 85 - 136; £6,1-57.

  • Otkun, G., 1942, Anadoluda bir kaç Lias Yatağının Paleontolojik Tetkiki : Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enst, Ankara, ser. B, mem. 8.

  • Pia, J., 1913, Über eine mittelliasische Cephalopodenfauaa aus dem nördostlichen Kleinasien : Ann. k.k. Naturhist. Hofmus, 27, 335 - 388.

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  • Reynes, P., 1868, Essai de geologie et de paleontologie aveyronnaises : Paris, (Bailliere).

  • Rosenberg, P., 1909, Die liasische Cephalopodenfauna der Kratzalpe im Hagengebirge : Beitr. Palaont. Geol. österr. - Ungarn u Orient, 22,193 - 345.

  • Schroder, J., 1927, Die Ammoniten der jurassischen Fleckenmergel in den Bayrischen Alpen : Palaeontographica, 69.

  • Sguazzoni, G., 1964, Fauna ammonitica dei calcari selciferi metamorfici delle Alpi Apuane : Palaeont. Ital., 57.

  • Vadasz, M.E., 1913, Liasfossilien aus Kleinasien : Mitt. Jb. Ungar. geol. Reichsanst., 21, 57 - 83.

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  • Geological Setting, Stratigraphy and Fades Characteristics of the Upper Cretaceous Limestones in the Işıldar - Altındağ (Bornova -Izmir) Area
    Sacit Özer Oğuz İrtem
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    Abstract: In the Işıklar - Altındağ area (south of Bornova), the rocks of Upper Cretaceous age are representedmainly by limestones and divided from base to top, in the following units :

    (1) Forominiferal - rudistid packstone of Late Turonian - Santonian age reflecting shelf lagoonal environment,

    (2) Pelagic foraminiferal wackestone of Late Santonian - Early Campanina age indicating conditions of basinal facies,

    (3) Bioclastic packstone of Late Campanian - Early Maastrichtian marking foreslope facies,

    (4) Foraminiferal - algal packstone of Late Maastrichtian age was deposition in shallow shelf facies conditions.The Upper Cretaceous limestones are vertical and overturned towards northwest in the southeastern part of thestudy area and it always has a faulted contact with detrital rocks including local calcareous shale layers having fossilscharacteristics of Danian.The sea level changes which controlled the depositional environments of the Upper Cretaceous lithofacies unitsindicate a transgression reaching its peak during the Late Santonian and Early Campanian and accompanied by aregression lasting until the end of Late Maastrichtian.

  • calcareous shale

  • Foraminifera

  • limestone

  • İzmir

  • Akartuna, M., 1962, İzmir • Torbalı - Seferihisar • Urla bölgesinin jeolojik etüdü : İstanbul Üniv. Fen Fak. Monografisi, 18, 22 - 29

  • Brinkmann, R., 1966, Geotektonlsche Gllederung von Westanatolien : N. Jb. Geol. Palaont. Mh., 603 - 618

  • Dunham, R. J., 1962, Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture, W. E. Ham., ed., Classification of carbonate rocks da: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, Mem. 1,108-121.

  • Hamilton, W, J. ve Strickland, H. E., 1840, On the geology of the Western part of Asia Minor: Trans, Geol. Soc., tb., 1 - 39

  • Konuk, T., 1977, Bornova filişinin yaşı hakkında: Ege Üniv. Fen Fak. Dergisi, Seri B, 1/1,85 - 74

  • Marengwa, B. S., 1968, Geologic des Gebletes zwlschen Işıklar und Buca östlıch İzmir (Tftrkei) : Diplomarbeit für die Diplom-Geologen-Hauptprüflng, Vorgelegt der Mathematisch • Naturwissen - sehaftlichen Faku)- tat der Universitat, 10 -16,

  • Oğuz, M-, 1966, Manisa dağının kuzey ve kuzeybatısının jeolojisi : Ege Univ. Fen Fak. îlml rap. serisi, 33, 6-7.

  • özer, S., 1981 Rudlst yığışımlarının petrol açısından önemi: Yeryuvarı ve insan, 6/1 - 2, 34 - 35

  • Pejovic, D., 1970, Premiere döcouverte des rudistes dans les sediments Turoniens de la Sebie de 16st: Vesnik Geologija, 28, 341 - 346

  • Plenlcar, M., 1960, The stratigraphic development of Cretaceous beds in Southern Primorska (Slovene littoral) and Notranjska: Geologija Razprave in Porocila, 6, 57-64

  • Poisak, A., 1958, Les rudistes et quelques autres fossiles des environs des VrpoIJe et de Perkovlc cn Dalmatie: GeoIoski Vjesnik, 12, 53 - 76

  • Potsak, A. ve Mamuzic, P., 1969, Les nouveaux gisements de rudistes dans le Cretace supdrieur des Dinarldes externes : Geoloski VJesnik, 22, 229 • 245.

  • Toker, V., 1980, Haymana yöresi (GB Ankara) Nannoplankton biyostratigraflsi: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. BÜ1L, 23/2, 169-176

  • Verdier, J., 1963, Kemalpaşa Dağı etüdü: M.TA. Dergisi, 61, 37-39

  • Wilson, J. L., 1975, Carbonate facies in Geologic History: Springer - Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, Newyork, 348 - 360

  • Yağmurlu. F., 1980, Bornova (Izmir) güneyi filiş topluluklarının jeolojisi: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 23/2, 141 -152

  • Geology and Volcanic Rocks of the Southeast Anatolian Ophiolite Belt of the Ergani - Maden Region
    Burhan Erdoğan
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    Abstract: Along a belt streching from Cyprus, Southeast Anatolia, Zagros and to the Oman Mountain, a linear trough was formed during Upper Cretaceous as the northern edge of the Arabian Craton subsided and allochthonousophiolite blocks were carried in from the north. From Upper Cretaceous to Miocene, shallow marine sedimentary rocksdeposited over the allochthonous units. However, volcanic activity continued up to the Eocene or Oligocene time alonga second belt loceted to the north of the trough. In this study the geoioy of this second belt, which is called SoutheastAnatolian Ophiolite belt, is examined around the Efgani - Maden region and by using chemical characteristics of thevaiconic rocks, its tectonic evolution is evaluated.In the Ergani - Maden region along the Southeast Anatolian ophiolite belt, crops out as the oldest rocks, Guleman group which consists of gradational peridotite, banded gabbro and basalt units. The Guleman group has beenmetamorphosed under greenschist facies conditions. Chemical composition of the volcanic rocks of the Guleman groupresembles to those of low potassium tholeiites of the midoceanic ridges.Maden group, overlying the Guleman group unconformably with a discontinious conglomerate at its base, iscomposed of basaltic volcanics, volcaniclastics, mudstones and pelagic limostones. In the Mâden group, which is Maastrichtien - Upper Eocene in age, the lower volcanic - sediment unit and the upper volcanic unit have been separated.This group has been metamorphosed under prehnite •• pumelliyite facies conditions. The chemical composition of thevolcanic rocks of the Maden group resembles to those of islaand - arc tholeiites.

  • Ophiolite

  • basalt

  • peridotite

  • Ergani

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  • Glennie, K. W., 1975, Late Cretaceous nappes in Oman Mountains and their geological evolution: Repply, Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., 59,1688.

  • Glennie, K. W., Bouef, M. G. A., Hughes Clark, M. W Mody - Stuart, M., Pilaar, W. F. H. ve Reinhardt, B. M., 1973, Late Cretaceous nappes in the Oman Mountains and their geologic evolution: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologits Bull., 57, 5 - 27.

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  • Özkaya, î., 1978, Yüksekova - Şemdinli yöresi stratigrafisi, tektonik evrimi ve petrol olanakları - Hakkari s Doçentlik tezi, Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi, Türkiye, 330 s., yayınlanmamış.

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  • Raznitsin, Y. N., 1975, Comparative tectonics of ultrabasic belts in the Schmidt Peninsula (Sakhalin), Papua (New Guinea) and Sabah (Kalimantan) : Geotectonic Acad, Sci. USSU, 9,108 -115.

  • Rhodes, J. M., 1973, Major and trace element chemistry of basalts from Leg 9 of Deep Sea Drilling Project: EOS American Geophys. Union Transac, 54, 1014 -1015.

  • Rigo de Righi, M. ve Cortesini, A., 1964, Gravity tectonics in Foothills Structure Belt of South - east Turkey: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., 48, 1911 -1937.

  • Rodgers, K. A., 1975, A comporison of the geology of the Papuan and New Caledonian ultramaf ic belts: Jour. Geology, 83,47 - 60.

  • Smewing, J. D., Simonian, K. O. ve Gass, I. G., 1975, Metabasalts from the Troodos Massif, Gyprus: Genetic implication deduced from petrography and trace element geochemistry: Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 51, 49-64.

  • Temple, P., ve Perry, D. J., 1962, Geology and oil occurrence, south - east Turkey: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., 46, 1596 - 1612.

  • Vallier, T. L., 1973, Synthesis of chemical analyses: Igneous and metamorphic rocks recovered by the Deep Sea Drilling project. D.S.D.P.; Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., LaJolla, Calif., 1-41.

  • Winchester, J. A. ve Floyd, P. A., 1976, Geochemical magma type discrimination: application to altered and metamorphased basic igneous rocks: Earth planet. Sci. Latt., 28, 459-469.

  • Yazgan, E., 1981, Doğu Torosiarda etkin bir paleo-kıta kenarı etüdü (Üst Kretase-Orta Eosen) Malatya - Elazığ - Doğu Anadolu : Yerbilimleri, Hacettepe Univ., Türkiye, 7,83 -104.

  • Zircon U/Pb Ages from Paragneisses of the Niğde Massif (Central Anatolia)
    Mehmet Cemal Göncüoğlu
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    Abstract: Zircons enriched from the lower parts of the Gümüşler Formation, forming the lowest unit of theNiğde Massif, have been dated by the U/Pb method. The discordia trajectory, as determined by five nonmagneticsize fractions of the heterogeneous zircons, intersects the concordia at To=2059±77 my and T,=217±4 my. To ageindicates that the paragneisses received elastics from a Proterozoic aged source terrain. T, age suggests that apossible early Alpine (Kimmerian) event may have affected the paragnesses. However there is se far no geologicalsupport for such an event and this age is open for further interpretations.

  • paragneisse

  • Zircon

  • Proterozoic

  • Niğde

  • Allegre, C.J., Albarede, F., Grünenfelder, M. ve Köppel, V., 1974, 238 U/ 206 Pb- 238 U/ 207 Pb- 232 Tlı/ 208 ?b zircon geochronology in Alpine and non - Alpine environment : Contr. Mineral, and Petrol., 43, 163-194.

  • Arpat, E.; Tütüncü, K.; Uysal, Ş. ve Göğer, E., 1978, Safranbolu yöresinde Kambriyen - Devoniyen istifi : Türkiye Jeo. Kur. 32. Bilimsel ve Teknik Kongresi Bildiri Özetleri, 67 - 68.

  • Ataman, G., 1974, Revue g6ochronologique des massifs plutonique et m6tamorphique de l`Anatolie : Hacettepe F.M.B. Bull.,3, 75-85.

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  • Brinkmann, R., 1971, Das kristalline Grundgebirge von Anatolien : Geol. Rdsch., 60, 886 - 899

  • Gebauer, D. ve Grtinenfelder, M., 1973, U/Pb zircon and Rb/Sr systems during progressiv metamorphism: Fortschr. Mineral., 50, 76 - 78.

  • Göncüoğlu, M.C., 1977, Geologie deş Westlichen Niğde - Massivs : Bonn Univ., Doktora tezi, yayımlanmamış.

  • Göncüoğlu, M.C., 1981, Niğde Masifi`nde viridinli gnaysın kökeni : Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 24/1, 45-51.

  • Grauert, B., 1974, U/Pb systematics in heterogeneous zircon populations from the precambrian basement of the Maryland piedmont : Earth and planet. Sci. Lett., 23, 238 - 248.

  • Grauert, B. ve Arnold, A., 1968, Deutung diskordanter Zirkonalter der Silvrettadecke und des Gotthardmassivs (Schweizer Alpen) : Contr. Mineral, and Petrol., 20, 34 - 56.

  • Grauert, B.; Hanny, R. ve Soptrajanova, G., 1973, Age and origin of detrital zircons from the pre - Permian basements of the Bohemian Massif and the Alps : Contr. Mineral, and Petrol., 40,105 -130

  • Greenwood, J.E.G.W. ve Bleackley, D<, 1967, Geology of the Arabian Peninsula, Aden Protectorate : U.S.G.S. Prog. Papers, 560 - C, 96 s.

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  • Köppel, V. ve Grünenfelder, M., 1971, A study of inherited and newly formed - zircons from paragneiss and granitized sediments of the Strona - Ceneri zone (Southern Alps) : Schweizer Min. Petr. Mitt., 51, 387 - 411.

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  • Özgül, N., 1976, Toroslarm bazı temel jeoloji özellikleri : Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 19/1, 65 - 78.

  • Pidgeon, R.T. ve Aftalion, M., 1972, The geochronieal significance of discordant U/Pb ages of oval - shaped zircons from a Lewisian gneiss from Harris, Outer Hebrides : Earth and planet. Sci. Lett., 17, 269-274.

  • Pidgeon, R.T.; O`Neil, R.J. ve Silver, L.T., 1973, Observations on the crystallanity and the U - Pb system of a metamict Ceylon zircon under experimental hydrothermal conditions : Fortschr. Mineral., 50, 118 s.

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  • Tromp, W., 1942, Kayseri - Niğde - Tuzgölü arasının jeolojisi : Maden Tetkik Arama Enstitüsü, Rap. No : 1456, yayımlanmamış.

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  • Stratigraphy of Menderes Massif Rocks in Selimiye and Beşparmak Region (Muğla)
    Ali Öztüek Ali Koçyiğit
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    Abstract: Menderes massif rocks, outcropping in Selimiye and Beşparmak region, are composed of units formedat the interval of Precambrian to Triassic. Massif is composed of Beşparmak formation of Precambrian age, Kılavuz formation of Silurian age, Aktaş formation of Devonian to Carboniferous age and Anitas formation of Triassicage. Menderes massif, having different metamorphic facies, is of sedimentary origin. Beşparmak formation has beenmetamorphosed by Early Caledonian orogeny while other formations, Kılavuz, Aktaş and Anitas, have been metamorphosed by Early Alpine orogeny. There is angular unconformity between the Beşparmak and Kılavuz formations,whereas there are disconformities between other formations.

  • Menderes massif

  • Alpine orogeny

  • metamorphosim

  • Muğla

  • Abdüsselamoğlu, M. Ş., 1965, Muğla - Yatağan çevresinde görülen jeoloji formasyonlarının korelasyonu : M.T.A. Rap., No. 3497, yayımlanmamış.

  • Akartuna, M., 1965, Aydın - Nazilli hattı kuzeyindeki versanlarm jeolojisi hakkında: M.T.A. Dergisi, 65, 1 -10,

  • Akat, U., Öztürk, Z., Öztürk, E. ve Çağlayan, A., 1975, Menderes masifi güneyi-SW Toros kuşağı ilişkisi (ön rapor) : M.T.A. Rap., No. 5488, yayımlanmamış.

  • Akdeniz, N. ve Konak, N., 1979, Menderes masifinin Simav dolaylarındaki kaya birimleri ve metabazik, metaultramafik kayaların konumu: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 22, 175 -183,

  • Akkök, R., 1981, Menderes masifinin gnayslarında ve şistlerinde metamorfizma koşullan, Alaşehir - Manisa: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 24,11-20.

  • Başarır, E., 1970, Bafa gölü doğusunda kalan Menderes ma* şifi güney kanadının jeoloji ve petrolojisi: E.Ü.F.F. Kürsüsü ilmi rapor servisi, No. 102,42 s.

  • Boray, A., Akat, U., Akdeniz, N., Akçaören, Z., Çağlayan, A, Günay !., Korkmazer, B., Öztürk, E., ve Sav, H., 1973, Menderes masifinin güney kenarı boyunca bazı önemli sorunlar ve bunların muhtemel çözümleri: Cumhuriyetin 50. yılı, Yerbilimleri Kongresi, 11-20.

  • Brinkmann, R., 1968, Geotektonische Gliederung von West Anatolien: M.T.A. Dergisi, 66, 61 - 74.

  • Brunn, J. H., Dumont, J. F., De Graciansky, P. Ch., Gutnic, M., Juteau, Th., Marcoux, J., Monod, O., ve Poisşon, A., 1971, Outline of the Geology of the Western Taurides; Campbell, A. S.» ed., Geology and Histoiy of Turkey de: Petroleum Exploration Society of Libya, Tripoli, 225 - 255.

  • Çağlayan, M. A., Öztürk, E. M., Öztürk, Z., Sav, H., ve Akat, U., 1980, Menderes Masifi güneyine ait bulgular ve yapısal yorum: Jeoloji Mühendisliği, 10, 9-17.

  • Dora, Ö-, 1969, Karakoca granit masifinde petrolojik ve metalojenik etüdleri: M.T.A. Dergisi, 73,10 - 26.

  • Dora, Ö., 1972, Ortoklas - Mikroklin Transformation in Migmatiten des Eğrigöz Massives: Türkiye Jeoloji Kur. Bült., 15/2, 131 - 152.

  • Flügel, N., ve Metz, K., 1954, Bodrum - Muğla yöresinde yapılan jeolojik harita raporu: M.T.A, Rap. No. 2799, yayımlanmamış.

  • Graciansky, Ch. de, 1965, Menderes Masifi güney kıyısı boyunca görülen metamorf izma hakkında açıklamalar: M.T.A. Dergisi, 64, 8 - 21.

  • Kaaden, G. v.d., ve Metz, K., 1954, Datça - Muğla - Dalaman Çayı arasındaki bölgenin jeolojisi: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült, 5/12, 71-170.

  • Onay, T. S., 1949, Über die Smirgelgesteine SW-Anatoliens: Schweitz. Mün. Petr. Mitt., 29/2, 357-492.

  • öztürk, A. ve Koçyiğit, A., 1976, Selimiye - Beşparmak bölgesi metamorf itlerinin tektoniği; Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknik Araştırma Kurumu, Matematik Fiziki ve Biyolojik Bilimler Araştırma Grubu, ftoje No. TBAG -137, yayımlanmamış.

  • Schuiling, R. D., 1958, Menderes Masifi`ne ait bir gözlü gnays üzerinde zirkon etüdü: M.T.A. Dergisi, 51, 38-41.

  • Schuiling, R. D., 1962, Türkiye`nin güneybatısındaki Menderes migmatit kompleksinin petrolojisi, yaşı ve yapısı hakkında: M.T.A. Dergisi, 58, 71 - 84.

  • Wippern, J., 1964, Menderes masifinin alpidik dağ teşekkülü içindeki durumu: M.T.A. Dergisi, 62, 71 -79.

  • The Makkah Inner Ring Road Project: .Geotechnical Investigation of Tunnel MIT-2
    Vedat Doyuran Ahmet Uğurlu Ali İlyas Harut
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    Abstract: The Makkah inner ring road project involves construction of four-vehicular tunnels and connectionroads around Holy Kabe in Saudi Arabia. The tunnels are horse-shoe shaped in cross section, double-tube, and ofvarying lengths. ,Quartz diorite of Preeambrian age consitütes the major bedrock along tunnel MIT-2, which is located approximately 1 km southeast of Kabe» The bedrock is frequuently crossed by felsite and dolerite dykes. Both the bedrock and the dyke rocks are strong to very strong.The joints developed within quartz diorite give rise to a large and/or very large blocky structure to the rock.The joints are generally widely spaced having tight and/or narrow apertures, and rough to planar surfaces. Theycontain neither infillings nor water.In order to provide a basis for tunnel support design, the rock mass quality is determined as «weak» at the tunnel portals and «good» away from the portals. It is further recommended that at the tunnel portals rockfall and othersimilar incidents may be avoided by the application of systematic bolting, wire meshing, and shotcreting. Awayfrom the portals random bolting and shotcrete application may be sufficient.

  • Quartz diorite

  • tunnel

  • shotcrete

  • Makkah

  • Anon, 1977, The description of rock masses for engineering purposes : Q. Jl. Engn Geol., 10, 355 - 388.

  • Barton, N., Lien, R., ve Lunde, J., 1974, Engineering classification of rock masses for the design of tunnel support : Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Pub. 106,88 s.

  • British Standards Institute, 1981, Code of practice for site investigation - BS 5930 : BSI, London, 147 s.

  • Broch, E., ve Franklin, J.A,, 1972, The point load strength test : Intnl. J. Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 9,669 - 697.

  • Brown, G.F., 1972, Tectonic map of the Arabian Peninsula: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Directorate General of Mineral Resources, Map AP. 2.

  • Deere, D.H., 1963, Technical description of rock masses for engineering purposes : Felsmechanik und Ingenieurgeologie, 1.1,16-22.

  • Drake, C.L., ve Girdler, R.W., 1964, A geophysical study of the Red Sea : Geophys. J.R. Astr. Soc., 8, 473-495.

  • Fairhead, JJD., ve Girdler, R.W., 1970, The seismicity of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Afar triangle : Trans. Roy. Soc. London, A. 267,49 - 74.

  • Girdler, R.W., 1964, Geophysical studies of rift valleys : Phys. Chem. Earth. 5,121 -156.

  • I.S.R.M., 1972, Suggested methods for determining the point load strength index for rock materials : ISRM Committee on Standardisation of Laboratory Tests, Document No. 1,8-13.

  • I.S.R.M., 1979 a, Suggested methods for determining the uniaxial compressive strength and deformability of rock materials: Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. and Geomech. Abstr., 16,135 -140.

  • I.S.R.M., 1979 b, Suggested methods for determining water content, porosity, density, absorption and related properties and swelling and slake durability index properties : Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. and Geomech. Abstr., 16,141 -156.

  • Kabbani, F.K., 1970, Geophysical and structural aspects of the central Red Sea rift valley : Trans. Roy. Soc. London, A. 267,89 - 97.

  • Kent, P.E., 1978, Middle East - The geological background, in proceedings of the conference on Engineering Problems Associated with Ground Conditions in the MidHIe last : Q. Ji. Engn. Geol., 11,2 - 7.

  • Rothâ, J.P., 1954, La zone seismique m^diane Indo - Atlantique : Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A 222, 387-397.

  • Sykes, L.B., ve Landisman, M., 1964, The seismicity of East Africa, The Gulf of Aden and the Arabian and Red Seas : Bull. Seism. Soc. Amer., 54, 1927-1940.

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