Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni
Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni

Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni

1976 ŞUBAT Cilt 19 Sayı 1
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Hydrogeology of the Spring Waters with High F Content from the Surroundings of Tendürek Volcano
Nazmi Oruç Nazmi Alpman İsmail Hakki Karamanderesi
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Abstract: Water samples from some springs which are used for drinking and irrigation purposes were collected inTendürek volcano region, located in the Eastern Turkey. Most of the spring water samples contain very high amountsof fluorine ranging from 2,5 to 12,5 ppm. The incisors and molars of a two-year-old sheep, obtained from the fluoroticconditions, exhibited brown to black staining and excessive and irregular wear. During the surveying of the area, dentalfluorosis was observed in the local population by the medical team. Dilution of fluorine rich waters with other suitablewaters down to a safe level was recommended to alleviate effects of fluorine on livestock and human health and alsoon the contamination of soils and pastures.The following units have been identified around the Tendürek mountain which is one of the young volcanoes ofAnatolia: Metamorphic rocks which are composed of micaschists, marble and quartzites and are thought to be Paleozoicin age, crystalline limestones which are Permo-Carboniferous in age, Upper Cretaceous ophiolites containing spilites,serpentinites and limestones, Paleocene limestones, Eocene flysch and limestone, sandstone, claystone, siltstone andlimestones of Miocene age, and Tertiary lava flows. The whole succession is covered by young basaltic lava flowsof Tendürek volcano.Spring waters are coming from these lavas, limestones in flysch and ophiolite, and marbles in basement. Tensamples were analysed from these springs. High F- waters are NaHCO3 type, and low F- waters are Ca-MgHCO3type. F- , which might be transported by fumaroles - escaped from devitrified lavas, could be held on the surfaceof some minerals and then exchanged with OH- of underground waters with high pH. At the end of this hypotheticprocess these waters might be discharged as high F- water at the foothills of Tendürek volcano.

  • marble

  • flysch

  • ophiolite

  • Tendürek mountain

  • Altınlı, İ.E., 1964, Türkiye Jeoloji Haritası, 1/500000 ölçekli, Van paftası; MTA Yayını.

  • Arni, P., 1938, Van vilâyetinin jeolojisi hakkında rapor: MTA Derleme Rap. no. 88, yayınlanmamış.

  • Bear, F.E., 1957, Toxic elements in soils: 1957 year book of agriculture USDA, 167-168.

  • Ellis, A.J. ve Mahon, W.A.J., 1964, Natural hydrothermal systems and experimental hot-water/rock interactions: Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta, 28, 1323-1357.

  • Garner, R.J., İ963, Fluorine. Veterinary Toxicology, 2nd ed., Williams and Wilkins Company, Baytimore, 83^91.

  • Hobbs, C.S.. 1954, Fluorosis in cattle and sheep: Üniv. of Tennessee Agricultural experiment station, Knoxville, Bull. İller Bankası, 1967, Dogubayazıt içme suyu raporu, İller Bankası su ve kanalizasyon müdürlüğü, yayınlanmamış.

  • Mac İntire, W.H., 1945, Soil content of fluorine and its determination; Soil Sci., 59, 105-109.

  • Mitchell, H.H. ve Edman, M., 1952, The fluorine problem in livestock feeding: The commonwealth bureau of animal nutrition, Nutrition Abs. and Reviews, 21, 4.

  • Noble, D.C., Vertie, C.S. ve Peck, L.C., 1967, Loss of halogens from crystallized and glassy silisic volcanic rocks: Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta, 31, 215-223.

  • Pamir, H.N., 1950, Aladag ve Tendürek bölgelerinde yapılan jeoloji tetkiklerine ait rapor: MTA derleme, Rap. no. 2195, yayınlanmamış.

  • Robinson, W.O. ve Edgington, G., 1946, Fluorine in soils: Science, 61, 341-353.

  • Shupe, J.L., ve Olson, A.E., 1970, Clinical aspect of fluorosis in horses: Jour. Amer. Veterinary Medical Assoc., 158, 2.

  • Taylor, P.S. ve Stoiber, R.E., 1973, Soluble material on ash from active central American volcanoes: Geol. Soc. America Bull., 84, 1031-1042.

  • WHO, 1970, Florides and human health: WHO, Monograph series, 59, Geneva.

  • Yenal, O., 1970, Türkiye Maden Suları: İstanbul Üniv. Tıp Fak. Hidroklimatoloji kürsüsü yayını, İstanbul.

  • Mineralogy, Chemistry, and Origin of The Mortaş Bauxite Deposit
    M.ender Atabey
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    Abstract: The Mortaş bauxite deposit is on the Western Taurus mountains of Turkey. It occurs along the unconformity between Lower and Upper Cretaceous limestones. The deposit is mainly boehmitic. In addition to boebmite,diaspore, gibbsite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, hematite, goethite, and anatase are also present in lesser amounts. Thedeposit also contains mineraloids such as alumogels, siderogel, and hematogelite.Among chemical constituents Al2O3 TiO2, and L.O.I have high positive Al2O3. SiO2 has differe correlation and showsimilar areal variation Fe2O3 is negatively correlated with Al2O3. SiO2 has a diffrent distribution pattern from the aforesaidchemical constituents. The mineralogical and chemical data indicates that the bauxite of the Mortaş deposit is derived fromlimestone. 

  • bauxite deposit

  • montmorillonite

  • hematite

  • Mortaş

  • Atabey, E., ve Özkaya, 1, 1975, Mortaş boksit yatağının kökeninin araştırılmasında trend yüzeyi yönteminin uygulanması: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 18, 2, 143-150

  • Beneslavsky, S. I., 1963, Mineralogie des Bauxites: B.R.G.M. Service d`Information Geologique, Tercüme No: 4706, Paris, 192 p.

  • Blumenthal, M., ve Göksu, E., 1949, Akseki civarındaki dağlarda boksit zuhuratı, bunların Jeolojik durumu ve jenezi hakkında izahat (Die Bauxit-Vorkommen der Berge um Akseki Erörterungen über ihre geologische Position, Ausmasse und Genese): MTA yayınları, Ankara, Seri B, No. 14, 59 s.

  • Göksu, E., 1953, Akseki boksit yataklarının jeoloji, jenez ve maden bakımından etüdü: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 4, 2, 79-140.

  • Wippern, J., 1959, Die Bauxit Von Akseki (Akseki boksitleri): MTA, Rapor No. 3076, Yayımlanmamış.

  • Wippern, J., 1962, Toros boksitleri ve bunların tektonik durumu: MTA Dergisi, 58, 47-70.

  • Wippern, J, 1965, Boksit teşekkülünün başlangıç kayadan; MTA Dergisi, 64, 37-41.

  • The Yomg Terrestrial Formations of the Eastern Valensole Basin (SE France)
    Güner Ünalan
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    Abstract: Valensole basin is situated in the southeast part of France and is formed as a subsiding basin on theMesozoic limestones. It contains more than 1000 m of mostly clastic sediments which are Tertiary-Quaternary in age.In the eastern part of the basin which was studied by the present writer, the red coloured "Valensole conglomerates" pass laterally in the white coloured "Puimoisson marles". These formations have been overlain by "Cryoclasticpebbles". These units are the youngest continental formations of the area which has been studied.In previous studies, it has been accepted that all these three units pass laterally in each other. Some workershave thought that they are Pliocene in age, but the other workers have suggested that they are Quaternary in age.This work has made it clear that the characteristic fossils which have been found in the Puimoisson marls indicatethat the Valensole conglomerates and the Puimoisson marls are definitely Upper Pliocene in age. The Cryoclastic pebbleswhich lie on top of the other units, represent a different faeies and are thought to be a glacial deposit in a Quaternaryage.Puimoisson marls were deposited in a lake environment which were developed in the Valensole basin here and there,during the Upper Pliocene time. At the same time southwesterly flowing rivers which were cut in the Mesozoic andLower Cenozoic units in the east, deposited the fan-shaped Valensole conglomerates in the basin.During a glacial period in Quaternary the cryoclastic pebbles were formed through frosting and melting processeson the Mesozoic-Lower Cenozoic units situated to the east of the basin. These pebbles were deposited as an alluvialcone in the basin after being transported by the southwesterly flowing rivers as in the case of the Upper Pliocene.

  • Valensole

  • marl

  • conglomerate

  • Fransa

  • Denizot, G.., 1933, Sur l`âge des poudingues de la Durance et de la Crau: C.R. Acad. Sci. 196, 1906-1908.

  • Gigout, M., 1969, Sur le Quaternaire du plateau de Valensole: C.R. Acad. Sci., 268, 2167-2169.

  • Goguel, J., 1933, Sur l`âge des poudingues de Valensole: C.R. Somm. Soc. Géol. Fr., 2, 234-236.

  • Lapparent, A.F. de., 1938, Etude geologique dans les regions provenoales et alpines entre le Var et la Durance; Bull. Serv. Carte Géol. Fr., 198, 1-147.

  • Repelin, J., 1934, Sur l`âge des poudingues de Riez et de Valensole: C.E. Somm. Soo. Géol. Fr., 3, 33-35.

  • Stanley, D.J., 1961, Etude sedimentologique des gres d`Anot et de leur equivalents latSraux: These d`Univ., Grenoble, 1-158 (yayınlanmamış tez).

  • Ünalan, G., 1970, Etude geologique de la bordure ouest de l`arc de Castellane: These de 3. cycle, Grenoble, 1-76 (yayınlanmamış tez).

  • Description of Six New Species of the Alveolina Found in the South of Polatlı (SW Ankara) Region
    Ercüment Sirel
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    Abstract: Six new spedes of Alveolina are described from the Polatlı region. Alveolina polathensis n.sp. (Upper Ilerdian), A.blumenthali n.sp. (Middle Herdian) belong to the group of Alveolina ellipsoidalis; A. bayburtensis n.sp.(Middle-UpperCuisian), A. sakaryaensis n.sp. (Middle Ilerdian) belong to the group of Alveolina Canavarii; A. ankaraensis n.sp.(Middle Ilerdian) belong to the group of Alveolina pasticillata; A. haymanaensis n.sp. (Lower Cuisian) belong to thegroup of Alveolina elliptica.

  • Alveolina

  • blumenthali n.sp.

  • haymanaensis n.sp.

  • Polatlı

  • Hottinger, L., 1960, Recherches sur les alveolines du Paleogene et de l`Eocene: Mem. Suisse de Paleont., Basel, 75-76, 1-236.

  • E., 1975, Polatlı (GB Ankara) güneyinin stratigrafisi: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., Ankara, 18, 2, 181-192.

  • Paleo-Current Directions in the Lower Tertiary Basin, South of Bayburt
    Teoman Nuriddin Norman
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    Abstract: Study area is situated within the triangle of Bayburt - Erzincan - Aşkale, trending roughly in a NE-SW directionand mainly comprising of Liower Tertiary (Ypresian) turbidites (750-1000 m in thickness). It appears that these turbidites havebeen deposited by paleo-currents flowing mainly from SW to NE. Some turbidity currents were probably initiated by submarineslumps which started at the northern and southern edges of the basin, and moved downslope towards the axis where theyturned paralel to it and continued along the basin plunge towards NE.

  • turbidite

  • paleo-current

  • plunge

  • Bayburt

  • Altınlı, İ.E., 1963, Erzurum paftası; 1:500 000 ölçekli Türkiye Jeoloji Haritası açıklaması. MTA Enstitüsü yayını.

  • Dzııynski, S. ve Walton, E.K., 1965, Sedimentary Features of Flysch and Graywackes, Developments in Sedimentology No 7, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 274s.

  • Gattinger, T.E., 1962, Trabzon paftası; 1:600 000 ölçekli Türkiye Jeoloji Haritası açıklaması. MTA Enstitüsü yayını.

  • Gökçen, S.L., 1972, Keşan Bölgesi Kumtaşlarının Yapısal/Dokusal Özellikleri ve Bölgenin Sedimanter Fasiyesleri Hacettepe Fen ve Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi, 2, 50-65.

  • Ketin, t, 1950; Bayburt Bölgesinin Jeolojisi. MTA Enstitüsü, Derleme, Rapor No. 1949, (yayınlanmamış).

  • Norman, T.N., 1960, Azimuth of Primary Linear Structures in Folded Strata. Geological Magazine, 97, 338-343.

  • Norman, T.N., 1963, İngiltere`nin Göller Bölgesindeki Ludloviyen Yaşlı Paleo-akmtıların Yönleri. Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült. 8; 27-54.

  • Norman, T.N., 1973, Ankara Yahşihan Bölgesinde Üst Kretase-Alt Tersiyer Sedimentasyonu. Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 16, 41-46.

  • Norman, T-N., 1975, Cankırı-Çorum-Yozgat Bölgesinde Alt Tersiyer yaşta Sedimentlerde Paleo-akıntılar ve Denizaltı Heyelanları. Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 18, 103-110.

  • Parkashı B., 1970, Downcurrent changes in sedimentary structures in Ordovician turbidite graywackes: Jour. Sed. Petrology, 40, 572-590.

  • Parkash, B. ve Middleton, G.V., 1970, Downcurrent textural changes in Ordovician turbidite graywackes: Sedimentology, 14, 259-293.

  • Pekmen, Y.N., 1964, Paleontolojik Tetkik ve Tayin Raporu No. 1964/ 13 MTA Enstitüsü, Paleontoloji Servisi.

  • Pettljohn, F.J. ve Potter, P.E., 1964, Atlas and Glossary of Primary Sedimentary Structures. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 360s.

  • Description and Stratigraphical Distribution of the Some Species of the Genera Nummulites, Assilina and Alveolina from the Ilerdian, Cuisian and Lutetian of Haymana Region (S Ankara).
    Ercüment Sirel Hatice Gündüz
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    Abstract: Systematic description and stratigraphical distributions of the species of Nmıımulites, Assilina and Alveoliııa have been studied in the Upper Paleocene (Ilerdian), Lower Eocene (CUisian) and Middle Eocene (Lutetian) sediments of the region between Çayraz and Yeşilyurt village, all situated in the north of Haymana (south of Ankara), inthe otherhand the stratigraphy of the region is given shortly,The rock units of Upper Cretaceous (Maestrichtian), Paleogene and Neogene ages crop out in the region. Maestrichtian sequence is composed of alternatlng sandstone, marl, congtomerate and sandy llmestone. The upper part of the Maestrichtian sequence contalns abundant foraminifera, species, such as Orbitoides mediu-s (d`Archiac), Siderolites calcitrapoides Lamarck, Ouvillierina Bözerii Sirel, in large amount. Lower Paleocene (Monttan) sequence overlies comformablythe Maestrichtlan, and it is composed of an alternating of alga! limestones and marı. The algal limestones contaln speclcsof the foraminifera such as Laf/itteina bibensiB Marle and Ouvillieri.ııa n.sp. Middle Paleocene (Thanetian) sedlmeotsoverlieB comformably the Montian and it is composed of sandstone, marl and alga! limestone. The alga! llmestone ofthe Thanetian sequence contain foraminifers such as Alveoıitıa .(Glomalveolina) prhnaeva Reichel and DiscocıJcliııa Bcttnesi Douville.The Upper Paleocene (Ilerdian) sequence overlies comformably the Middle Paleocene (Thanetıan) and ıt ıs com-posed ofsandstone, conglomerate, marl and sandy limestone. The sandstones and sandy limestones of the sr-quence contaln species of theforaminifera such as NummıditesfraaBi dela Harpe, N. exilis Douvill .Alvcofüıa cu-cumlformis Hottınger, The Ilerdlan se,quenceIsunconformably overlaln by the clayey and sandy llmeetones, marl nnd conglomerate of Lower Eocene (Cu!slan) age, the Culslansedlments Is characterfzed by Num1nulites pTanulatıuı (La-marck), N. irregularis Deshayes, N. partschi de la Harpc, Assiliııaplacentula (Deshayes), Alv`oolinabayburtcıısls Slrcl andAlv. canavarii Checchla - Rlspoll. TheMlddlcEocenc (Lutetian) sequcnceoverlles com!ormably thc Cı,ılıılıın sc· dlments and it Is composed of an alternatıon of clayey llmestone and marl. The cıayeyllmestones are characterlzed by Nummulites helveticııs Kaufmann, N. laevigatus (Bruguiere), N. pinfoldi Davies, Ass. exponeııs(Sowerby) and.ııss.spiro deRolssy. The Lutetian sequence ıs unconformably overlaln by the lacustrine llmestone andconglomerateof Ncogcne age, 

  • sandy limestone

  • marl

  • Nummıdites

  • Haymana Region

  • Archiac, A-d` and Haime, J.; 1853, Description des animaux fossiles du groupe nummulitiqu|e de 1’Inde ıj>r6c6d6e d’un r£sum£ g6ologique et d’une monographic des Nummulites. Paris, 1-373.

  • Azzaroli, A., 1952, I macroforaminiferi della s< de del Carcar (Eocene medio e superiore in Somalia) e la loro dis rlbuzione stratigrafica. Paloeontogr. Italica, Pisa, 47, 17, 99 - 131.

  • Belmustakov, E., 1959, Les fossiles de Bulgarie; Bulgarska Akad. Nauk, Sofia, 7 - 79.

  • Bieda, F., 1933, Sur quelques Nummulines et Assilines d’Espagne. In: GĞologie des pays Catalans, Espagne. Assoc. Etude Geol. MeditârranSe Occldentale, Barcelona, 3, 28, 1 - 18.

  • Boussac, J., 1911, Etudes pal^ontologiques sur le nummulitique Alpin: Serv. Carte Geol., Mem., Paris, 1 - 437.

  • Bruguiere, J.G., 1792, Hlstoire Naturelle des Vers. Encyclopedic methodlque, 1, 1 - 399.

  • Checchia - Rispoll, G, 1904, I foraminiferi eocenici del gruppo del M. Indica dei dintorni di Catenanuova in Provincla di Catania: Soc. Geol. Ital., Boll., Rome, 23, 3 - 66.

  • Checchia - Rlspoli, G., 1905, Spora alcune Alveolina eoceniche della Sicilia: Pal. Ital., Pisa, XI, 147 - 165.

  • Cole, W.S., 1960, The genus Camerina: Bull. Amer. Pal., Ithaca, N.Y., 41, 190, 189 - 205.

  • Dacl-Dlzer, A., 1953, Contribution a I’Stude pal^ontologique du Nummulitique de Kastamonu: Fac. Scl., Rev. Istanbul, B, 18, 3-4. 207 - 299.

  • Davies, L.M., 1940, The upper Khirthar beds of north-west India: Quart. J., Geol. Soc. London, 96, 2, 199 - 230.

  • Deshayes, H., 1838, Description des coquilles fossiles recueillies en CrlmĞe par M. de Verneuil: Mem. Soc. Geol. France, 3, 37 - 39.

  • Dizer, A., 1964, Sur quelques Alvöollnes de 1’Eocfene de Turqule; Revue de Mlcropalöont., Paris, 7, 4, 265 - 279.

  • Doncieux, L., 1926, Catalogue descriptif des fosslles nummulltlques de 1’Aude et de l’H4rault; Univ.^ Ann., France, Lyon, 1. 45, 1 - 99.

  • Doncieux, L., 1948, Les foraminifferes docönes et oligocenes de 1`ouest de Madagascar: Serv. Mines, Ann. Gdol., Paris, 13, 1 - 32.

  • Douvill4, H., 1902, Etude sur les Nummulites: Bull, Soc. G^ol. de France, Paris, 4, 11, 207 - 213.

  • Douvill4, H., 1919, Eocfene İnfĞrieur en Aquitaine et dans les Pyrdndes; Serv. Carte G4ol., M6m., France, Paris, 1 - 84.

  • Douvillö, H., 1924, Les premieres Nummulites dans 1`Eocdne du Bearn: C.R. Acad. Sci. 1 - 178.

  • Erk, A.S., 1957, Ankara civarı petrol İhtimalleri; Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitüsü, Ankara, derleme no. 2600 (yayımlanmamış).

  • Flandrin, J., 1938, Contribution â. l’4tude paleontologique du Nummultlque Alg^rien: Mat^riaux Carte G6ol. Algerie, Macon, 1, 8, 5 - 158.

  • Golev, B.T. and Khloponin, K.L., 1961, On the nomenclature and characteristics of some granulose Nummulites: Akad. Nauk SSSR, GeoL Inst. Moscow, 4, 104 - 120.

  • Harpe, P. de la, 1880, Note sur les Nummulites partschi et costerl, de la Harpe, du calcaire du Mlchelsberg, prSs Stockerau (Autriche) et du Gumigelsandsteln de Suisse. Soc. Vaud. Sci. Nat., Bull., Lausanne, 2, 17, 84, 33 - 40.

  • Harpe, P. de la, 1883, Monographic der in Aegypten und der libyschen Wttste vorkommenden Nummuliten. Palaeontogr., Beitr. Naturg. Vorzeit, Cassel, Germany, 30, (3, 6) 1, 155 - 218.

  • Heim, A., 1908, Die Nummuliten - und Flyschblldungen der Schwelzeralpen: Schweiz. Pal. Ges., Abh. (Soc. Pal. Suisse, M4m.), Zurich, 35, 4, 248.

  • Hottlnger, L., 1960; Recherches sur lea Alvöollnes du PalĞocene et de Eocöne: MĞm. Sulsse de Paltont., Basel, 75, 76, T, II, 236 s.

  • Kaever, M., 1970, Die alttertiaren Grossforamintferen Südost - Afghanistans unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Nummulitiden. Morphologie, Taxonomie ımd Biostratigraphie. Münster. Forsch. Geol. Palaont., Münster, 16 - 17, 400 s.

  • Kaufmann, F.J., 1867, Der Pilatus, geologlsch untersucht und beschrieben: Beitr. Geol. Karte Schweiz, Bern, 1 - 166.

  • Lamarek, J.P.B.A. de M. de, 1804, Suite des MĞmoires sur les Fossiles des environs de Paris: Ann. Mus. Hist, nat., 5, 179 - 188.

  • Leymerie, A., 1846, M6moire sur le terrain â Nummulites (6picr6tac6) des Corbieres et de la Montagne Noire: Soc. GSol. France, M4m., Paris, 2, 1, 2, 337 - 373.

  • Llueca, G.F., 1929, Los Nummulltidos de Espana. Com. Invest. Pal. Prehist.i, Mem. Madrid, 36, 8, 1 - 400.

  • Nemkov, G.I., and Barkhatova, N.N., 1960, Nummulites, assilines and operculines of the Crimea and their importance in the zoning of Eocene deposits: Izvestia, Geol. and Prosp., Moscow, 5, 29 - 43.

  • Nemkov, G.I., and Barkhatova, N.N., 1961, Nummulites, assilines and operculines of the Crimea. Leningrad / Moskow: Akad. Nauk SSSR, Geol. Mus. Karpinski, Trudy, Moskow, 5, 1 - 124.

  • Nuttall, N.L.F., 192f, The stratigraphy of the Laki series (Lower Eocene) of parts of Sind and Baluchistan (India); with a description of the larger foraminifera contained in those beds. Quart. J. Geol. Soc , London, 81, 3, 417 - 453.

  • Roissy, F. de, 1805, Histoire naturelie g6n£rale et partlculifere des Mollusques; Ouvrage faisant suite aux oeuvres de Leclerc de Buffon, et partie du Cours complet d’Histoire naturelie rSdlgS par C. S. Sonnlni. Paris, 5, 57 - 58.

  • Ruiz de Gaona, M., 1946, El Terciario nummulitico fertll de Guecho (Vizcaya): Inst. Geol. Min. Espana, Notas y Comun., Madrid, 16. 185 - 214.

  • Said, R. and Kerdany, M.T., 1961, The geology and micropaleontology of the Farafra Oasis, Egypt: Micropaleont., New York, 7, 3, 317 - 336.

  • Schaub, H., 1951, Stratigraphic und Palaontologie des Schlierenflysches mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der paleocaenen und untereocaenen Nummuliten und Assllinen: Schweiz. Pal. Abh. (M<5m. Suisses Pal.) Basel, 68, 1 - 122.

  • Schaub, H., 1962, Über einige stratlgraphisch wichtige Nummuliten - Arten. Ecl. Geol. Helv., Basel, 55, 2, 529 - 55L

  • Schaub, H., 1966, Über die grossforamlniferen im Untereocaenen von Campo: Ecl. Geol. Helv., Basel, 59, 1, 355 - 377

  • Schaub, H. ve Kapellos, V.C., 1973, Zur Korrelation von Biozcnierungen mit Grossforamlniferen und Nannoplankton im Palaogen der Pyrenaen: Ecl. Geol. Helv., Basel, 66, 3, 687-737.

  • Sirel, E., 1976, Description of six new species of the Alveolina found in the south of Polatli (SW Ankara) region; Bull. Geol. Soc. of Turkey, Ankara, 19, L

  • Sowerby, J. de C., 1840, In: Syked, W.H., A. notice respecting some fossils collected in Cutch, by Capt. Walter Smee, of Bombay Army: Geol. Soc. Trans., London, 2, 5, 715 - 719.

  • Tellini, A., 1890. Le Nummulitidi della Majella, delle Isole Tremiti e del Promontorio Garganico: Soc. Geol. Ital., Boll., Rome, 9. 359 - 422.

  • Yüksel. S., 1970, Etude gdologique de la Region d’Haymana (Turquie Centrale): Thfese, Facultd des Sciences de L’Universite de Nancy, 1 - 177.

  • Zeigler, J.H., 1960, Die Assllinen des Eozans vom Kressenberg in Oberbayern. Geol. Bavarica, Munich, 44, 209 - 231.

  • Fluid Inclusion Study of Bulancak Sulphide Veins
    Ömer Tezcan Akinci
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    Abstract: Data based on a study of more than 2500 primary and secondary fluid inclusions in transparent oreand gangue minerals are given. The data include measurements on the temperature, pressure, density and salinity ofthe inclusions present in the Southern Bulancak Deposits, Eastern Black Sea Ore Province of Turkey.The inclusions were moderately saline, salinity varying within the range 13.2 equivalent wt. % NaCl to almostfresh water indicated by a density change from 0.74 gr/cm3in the early vein stage to 0.98 at the end of the basemetal sulphide stage. These variations may reflect the mixture of deeply circulating meteoric waters with rising,saline, hydrothermal fluids.Homogenization temperatures ranged from ca 80°C to 340°C. Inclusions show a temperature rise from ca 230to 330°C in the early vein stage, and eventually boiling conditions were reached. At a later stage the fluids cooledfrom 330°C to ca 80°C in the base metal sulphide stage. The highest temperatures were obtained from the Tekmezar Group of veins, in comparison to the Danköy group of veins, indicating a horizontal temperature zoning.Evidence of boiling conditions and geological data suggest that the depositional pressures were 85-90 bars indicating a 1000 m hydrostatic load.Data obtained from isotherms indicates that the ore-bearing fluids rose along NW-SE trending faults.Fluid inclusion studies combined with geological, data, are considered to be useful parameters in mineral exploration to pinpoint richest part of the orebody. 

  • gangue minerals

  • sulphide veins

  • Fluid inclusion

  • Bulancak

  • Akıncı, Ö.T., 1974, The geology and mineralogy of copper, lead, zinc sulphide veins from Bulancak, Turkey: University of Durham, Ph. D. Thesis, yaymlanmamig.

  • Akıncı, Ö.T., 1975, Bulancak sfaleritlerinde eser element dağılımına ve renge etkiyen etmenler: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült. 18, 1, 63 - 68.

  • Akıncı, Ö.T., 1976, Sıvı kapanımlar ve onlardan yararlanma olanakları: Yeryuvarı ve İnsan, 1, 1, hazırlanmakta.

  • Haas, Jr., J.L., 1970, An equation for the density of vapor saturated NaCl-H2O solutions from 75° to 325° C: Am. Jour. Sci., 269, 489-493.

  • Holland, H.D., 1972, Granites, solutions and base metal deposits: Econ. Geol., 67, 291 - 301.

  • Kelly, W.M. ve Turneaure, F.S., 1970, Mineralogy, paragenesis and geothermometry of the tin and tungsten deposits of the eastern Andes, Bolivia: Econ. Geol., 65, 609-680.

  • Lemmlein, G.G., ve Klevtsov, P.V., 1961, Relations among the principal thermodynamic parameters in a part of the system H^o — NaCl: Geochemistry, 2, 148-158.

  • Miyazawa, T., 1967, Lowest limit and depth of formation of hydrothermal veins: Sci. Rept, Tokyo Kyoiku Baigaku, 9, 256-261.

  • Nash, J.T., 1972, Fluid inclusion studies of some gold deposits in Nevada: U.S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 800-C, C 15 - 19.

  • Nash, J.T., 1973, Geochemical studies in the Park City District, Utah - Part 1, Ore fluids in the Mayflower Mine: Econ. Geol., 68, 34 - 51.

  • Nash, J.T., ve Theodore, T.G., 1971, Ore fluids in a porphyry copper depaosit at Copper Canyon, Nevada: Econ. Geol., 66, 385 - 399.

  • Roedder, E.,. 1967, Fluid inclusion as samples of ore fluids; Barnes, H.L., ed., Geochemistry of Hydrohermal Ore Deposits de: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 515-574.

  • Roedder, E., 1971, Fluid inclusion studies on the porphyrytype ore deposits at Bingham, Utah, Butte, Montana, and Climax, Colorado: Econ. Geol., 66, 98-120.

  • Sawkins, F.J., 1964, Lead-Zinc ore deposition in the light of fluid inclusion studies, Providencia Mine, Zacatecas, Mexico: Econ. Geol., 59, 883 - 919.

  • Smith, P.W., 1974, Factors governing the development of fluorspar orebodies in the North Pennines. Univ. of Durham, Ph. X>. Thesis, yayınlanmamış.

  • Toulmin III, P., ve Clark, Jr., S.P., 1967, Thermal aspects of ore formation; Barnes, H.L., ed., Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Ore Deposits de: Holt, Einehart and

  • Turneaure, F.S., 1960, A comparative study of major ore deposits of Central Bolivia: Econ. Geol., 65, 217 - 254; 575 - 606.

  • Wolf, A.W., ve Brown, M.G., 1966, Concentrative properties of aqu solutions; Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 46 th. ed Cleveland Chemical Rubber Co., D 127-166.

  • Origin of Asbestos Occurrences in Mihaltcctk (Eskişehir) Region
    Sait İsmail Özkaya
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    Abstract: Asbestos deposits of Mihalıccık region occur at local shear zones along the contact between metamorphicand serpentinized ultrabasic rocks. Metamorphic rocks were intensely laminated, serpentinites were fractured and forcefully injected in metamorphic rocks at such shear zones. Metamorphic rocks are chloritized, and fractures withinserpentinites are filled with picrolite, asbestos, talc and quartz. Such mineralogical changes are caused by frictional heatand solutions circulating within fractures at such shear zones. Glaueophane has two distinct origin in this area: it hasdeveloped within the metamorphic rocks as a result of burial metamorphism on a regional scale and locally, it hasdeveloped with metamorphic rocks around shear zones due to heat and circulation of solutions. 

  • Glaueophane

  • talc

  • Asbestos

  • Eskişehir

  • Bates, R.L., 1969, Geology of the industrial rocks and minerals: Dover Publications Inc., New York, 459 s.

  • Cooke, H.C., 1936, Asbestos deposits of Thetford district, Quebec: Econ. Geology 31, 365-376.

  • Çoğulu, E., 1967, Etude petrographique de la region de Mihalıççık (Turquie): Doktora tezi, Üniversite de Geneve. Tez no: 1408, 683-823.

  • Du Toit, A.L., 1946, The origin of the amphibole asbestos deposits of South Africa: Geol. Soc. South Africa Trans. 48, 161-206.

  • Kupfahl, H.G. ve Weingart, W.. 1954, Geologic setting of the area covering the maps Eskişehir 1|/100 000 no: 55/2, 56/4, Sivrihisar 56/1-2-3-4. MTA Derleme rapor no: 2247-2248, Yayımlanmamış.

  • Riordon, P.H., 1955, The genesis of asbestos in ultrabasic rocks; Econ. Geol. 50, 67-81.

  • Winkler, H.G.P.» 1965, Petrogenesis of metamorphic rocks: SpringerVerlag, Berlin, 220 s.

  • Progressive Failure in a Large-Scale Field Shear Test
    Barry Voight Kadri Erçin Kasapoğlu
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    Abstract: A large-scale `in-situ` shear test, employed in the construction of a Brazilian power-navigation projecton the Parana River, was analyzed by a "discontinuum" finite element approach. This was considered particularlyappropriate for simulation inasmuch as horizontal and vertical displacements were recorded as a function of appliedload at a number of points on the test block. In the field test, described in detail by Ruiz and Camargo (1966),resistance between sandstone and an overlying basaltic flow was determined. Inversion of vertical displacementsobserved by Ruiz and Camargo in their field test, are also seen in the theoretical results obtained by the finite elementapproach. However, the theoretical results suggest that inversion of vertical displacements can also occur as a consequence of elastic deformation. The inversion effect can be produced as a consequence of the reorientation of the elasticdisplacement field during the progressive slip along the base of the shear block. 

  • shear test

  • sandstone

  • basaltic flow

  • Kasapoğlu, K.E., 1973, Progressive failure in discontinuous rock masses subjected to shear loading: Ph. D. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, 165 s.

  • Ruiz, M.D., 1966, Some technological characteristics of twentysix Brazilian rock types: Proc. 1st Congress. Int. Soc. of Rock Mechanics, Lisbon, 115-121.

  • Ruiz, M.D. ve Camargo, F.P., 1966, A large scale field shear test: Proc. 1st Congress. Int. Soc. of Rock Mechanics, Lisbon, 257-261.

  • Ruiz, M.D., Camargo, F.P. ve Nieble, C.M., 1968, Some considerations regarding the shear strength of rock masses: International Symposium on Rock Mechanics», Madrid, 159-161.

  • Serafim, J.L., 1963, Rock mechanics considerations in the design of concrete dams: Int. Conf. State of Stress in the Earth Crust, Santa Monica, 628-633.

  • Wang, Y.J. ve Voight, B., 1969, A discrete element stress analysis model for discontinuous materials: Proc. Inter. Symp. on Large Permanent Underground Openings, Oslo, 111-115.

  • Some Geological Aspects of the Taunts Orogenic Belt (Turkey)
    Necdet Özgül
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    Abstract: The Taurus mountains contain the rock units which were deposited from Cambrian to Tertiary. Withinthis belt there are different units representing different basin conditions. The following units were distinguished andwere named by the author: Bolkardağı Unit, Aladağ Unit, Geyik dağı Unit, Alanya Unit, Bozkır Unit and Antalya Unit.These units can be distinguished and differentiated from each other by their stratigraphic position, character ofmetamorphism, the rock units which they contain and theil present structural position. These units extend laterallyabout hundreds of kilometers with tectonic contacts between them and commonly they form allochthonous covers oneach other. The Bolkardağ, Aladağ, Geyik dağı and Alanya units contain carbonates and detrital rocks which werethought to be deposited in a shelf environment. On the other hand, the Bozkır and Alanya units contain deep seasediments, ophiolites and submarine basic volcanic rocks.

  • ophiolite

  • metamorphism

  • allochthonous

  • The Taurus mountains

  • Başarır, E., 1970, Bafa Gölü doğusunda kalan Menderes masifi güney kanadının jeoloji ve petrografisi: Ege Üniversitesi Fen Fakültesi Raporlar Serisi, No: 102-1970, 44 s.

  • Blumenthal, M.M., 1941, Niğde ve Adana vilâyetleri dahilinde Torosların jeolojisine umumi bakış: Maden Tetkik Arama Enat., Ankara, No 8, 48 s.

  • Blumenthal, M.M., 1944, Bozkır güneyinde Toros sıradağlarının serisi ve yapısı: 1st. Univ. Fen Fak. Mec, Seri B, 9, 2, 95-125.

  • Blumenthal ,M.M., 1947 a, Seydisehir-Beysehir hinterlandmdaki Toros dağlarının jeolojisi: Maden Tetkik Arama Enst., Ankara, No 2, 242 s.

  • Blumenthal, M.M., 1947 b, Belemedik Paleozoik penceresi ve bunun Mezozoik kalker çerçevesi; Maden Tetkik Arama Enst, Ankara, No 3, 39 s.

  • Blumenthal, M.M., 1951, Batı Toroslarda Alanya ard ülkesinde jeolojik araştırmalar: Maden Tetkik Arama Enst., Ankara, No. 5, 194 s.

  • Blumenthal, M.M., 1952, Toroslarda Yüksek Aladağ silsilesinin coğrafyası, stratigrafi-si ve teknoniği hakkında yeni etüdler: Maden Tetkik Arama Enst., Ankara No. 6, 136 s.

  • Blumenthal, M. M., 1956, Karaman-Konya havzası güneybatısında Toros kenar silsileleri ve Sist-Radiolarit formasyonunun stratigrafi meselesi: Maden Tetkik Arama Enst. Derg., 48, 1-36.

  • Blumenthal, M.M., 1963, Le Systeme structural du Taurus Sud-Anadolian, Livre a la Mémoire du Prof. P. Pallot da: Mem. hs-sér., Soc Geol. de France, 11, 611-662.

  • Boray, A., Akat, TL, Akdeniz, N., Akcaören, Z., Çağlayan, A., Günay, E., Korkmazer, B., Oztürk E.M. ve Sav, H., 1975, Menderes masifinin güney kenarı boyunca bazı önemli sorunlar ve bunların muhtemel çözümleri; Cumhuriyetin 50. Yılı Yerbilimleri Kongresi 1973: Maden Tetkik Arama Enst, Ankara, 11-20.

  • Brunn, J.H., Dumont, J.H., Graciansky, P. Ch. de, Gutnic, M., Juteau, Th., Marcoux, J., Monod, O., ve Poisson, A., 1971, Outline of the geology of the western Taurids Geology and History of Turkey de: Petroleum exploration Society of Libya, Tripoli, 225-255.

  • Dean, W.T. ve Monod, O., 1970, The lower Paleozoic stratigraphy and faunas of the Taurus mountains near Beyşehir, Turkey, I. Stratigraphy: Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. His.), Geol., 19, 8, 411-426.

  • Graciansky, P., Ch., de, 1967, Existence d`une nappe ophiolithique a l`extremite occidentale de la chaine sud-anatolienne; relations entre les autres unites charriées et avec les terrains autochtones (Turquie): C.R. Acad. Sci., Paris, Sér. D., 264, 2876-2879.

  • Graciansky, P., Ch., de, 1968, Teke yarımadası (Likya) Torosları`nm üstüste gelmiş ünitelerinin stratigrafisi ve DinaroToroslar`daki yeri: Maden Tetkik Arama Enst. Derg., 71, 73-91.

  • Graciansky, P. Ch. de, 1972, Recherches geologiques dans le Taurus Lycien occidental: These Univ. Paris-Sud centre d`orsay, Ser. A, No. 896, 571 s.

  • Gutnic, M., Kelter, D. ve Monod, O., 1968, Découverte de nappes de charriages dans le Nord du Taurus occidental (Turquie): C.R. Acad. Sci., Paris, 266, 988-991.

  • Gutnic, M., ve Monod, O., 1970, Un serie Mésozoique condansée dans les nappes du Taurus occidental, la série du Boyalı Tepe: C.B., somm., soc. Géol. France, fasc. 5, 166-167.

  • Lefevre, R., 1966, DonnSes nouvelles sur la stratigraphie du Crétacé superieur dans le massif des Bey dağları (Taurus Lycien Turquie): C.R. Acad. Sci., Paris, Sér. D., 263, 1029-1032.

  • Lefevre, R., 1967, Un nouvel element de la g^ologie du Taurus Lycien: Les nappes d1 Antalya (Turquie): C.R. Acad. Sci., Paris, sér. D, 265, 1365-1368.

  • Lefevre, R., ve Marcoux, X, 1970, Schéma structural et esquisse stratigraphie des nappes d`Antalya dans leur segment sudoccidental (Taurus lycien, Turquie): C. R. Acad. Sci., Paris, 271, 888-891.

  • Pisoni, C, 1967, Kaş (Antalya ili) bölgesinin jeolojik etüdü: Maden Tetkik Arama Enst. Derg., 69, 42-49.

  • Poisson, A., 1967, Données nouvelles sur le Crétacé et le Tertiaire du Taurus occidental au NW d`Antalya (region de Korkuteli, Turquie): C.R. Acad. Sci., Paris, Ser. D, 264, 218-221

  • Özgül, N., 1971, Orta Torosların kuzey kesiminin yapısal gelişiminde blok hareketlerin önemi: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 14, 75-87.

  • Özgül, N. ve Gedik, İ., 1973, Orta Toroslar`- da Alt Paleozoyik yagta Çaltepe Kireçtaşı ve Seydişehir Formasyonu`nun stratigrafisi ve konodont faunası hakkında yeni bilgiler: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 16, 2, 39-52.

  • Özgül, N, ve Arpat, E., 1973, Structural units of the Taunus orogenic belt and their continuation in neighbouring regions; selection of papers on the Eastern Mediterranean region presented at the 23 rd congress of CIESM in Athens, Nowember 1972 de: Bull, of the Geol, Soci. of Greece, 10-1, 156-164.

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