Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni
Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni

Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni

1975 ŞUBAT-AĞUSTOS Cilt 18 Sayı 1
COVER
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CONTENTS
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A New Horon Mineral in Turkey: Kernite ,and Discussion on Genesis
Orhan Baysal Gürol Ataman
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Abstract: The latest investigation on Kırka borate deposits reveals the existence of a new mineral; kernite(NaBB4O74H2O, which is a sodium-tetraborate ,and it is discovered for the first time in Turkey. After the geologicalposition of samples noted, they have been studied by microscope, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, differentialthermic analysis ,and infrared absorption analysis. Colorless, transparent but sometimes white needles / bunch of needles of kernite crystals were found in borax asellipsoidal form where the size, of ellipsoid is in the range of 40 to 60 cms. However, this is the only kernite ellipsoidfound in borax, it is believed that when the underground excavation advances new kernite ellipsoids may be found.Presence of kernite with borax in Kırka borate deposits reveals that the geological conditions differ locally duringthe crystallisation of borates ,and support the idea about the genesis proposed previously (Baysal, 1972 a; 1973 a). Inorder to precipitate kernite instead of borax / converting borax to kernite, it is not necessary to change the chemicalcomposition of the solution, but decrease the activity of water. Activity of water decreases when pressure / temperature / both increases. From this, two possibilities for the occurence of kernite can be suggested. First kernite mayform by dehydration of borax with subsequent local increase of pressure ,and temperature. But, due to structural differences between borax ,and kernite, ,and equilibrium conditions determined by Ataman ,and Baysal (1973) this possibilityless favorable from the second possibility which tiy* authors .believe. In accordance with this, kernite assumed to be formed in the cavities of borax by warmer solutions brought by tiny veinlets.

  • borax

  • kernite

  • Kırka borate deposits

  • geochemical

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  • Baysal, O. 1972a, Sarıkaya (Kırka) borat, yataklarının mineralojik ve jenetik incelenmesi. - Hacettepe Üniversitesi, 157 s.

  • Baysal, O.1972b, Sarıkaya (Kırka) borat yataklarında yeni bir stronsiyum-borat minerali: Tunelit. - M.T.A. Enstitüsü Dergisi, No. 79. s. 22-30

  • Baysal, O.1973a, Sarıkaya (Kırka) borat yataklarının oluşumu. - Türkiye Maden cilik Bil. ve Tek. Kongr. Bül., s. 255-277.

  • Baysal, O.1973b. Türkiye`de yeni bulunan sulu magnezyum-borat mineralleri: Kurnakovit, İnderit, inderborit. - M.T.A. Enstitüsü Dergisi, No. 80, s. 89-99.

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  • Menzel, H. and Schulz, H. 1940, Zur Kenntnis der Borsaeure und borsauren Alkalisalze. X. Der Kernit (Rasorit) NacBiCh - 4H=O - Zs. anorg. xi. allg. Chem., 245, p. 157- 220..

  • Muessig, S. and Allen, R. D. 1957, Ezcurrite (2Na7
  • Minder, `W. 1935, cit. in Palache, C, Berman, H. and Frondel, C. (1960), Dana`s system Mineralogy, 7 the Edition, vol. II, John `Willey and Sons, Inc, New York.

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  • Schaller, `W. T. 1930, Borate minerals from the Kramer distrct, Mohave dessert, Califor nia, In Shorter contributions to general geology, 1929, U.S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 158, p. 137-170

  • Schaller, `W. T., Vlisidis, A. C. and Mrose, M. E. 1965, Macallisterite, 2MgO . 6B,Os . I5H2O, a new hydrous magnesium borate mineral from the Death Valley region, Inyo County, California. - Am. Miner., vol. 50, p. 629-640

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  • Geology of Aktepe-Gökdere Region ,and Ophiolitic Melange
    Ussal Z. Çapan Ersen Buket
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    Abstract: Aktepe-Gökdere region consists of magmatic ,and sedimentary rocks ranging in age through Early Cretaceous to Tertiary. Emplacement of ultramafic magma took place during early stages of Upper Cretaceous in the region.It is thought that the magma was poured out in a wet, flyseh-like sedimentary matrix (Ağıltepe Unit) ,and mixedup with it, thus yielding a para-autochthonous melange structure. This structure became more chaotic during west to easttransportation due to tectonic forces of Alpine orogeny in which orogenic gravity ,and thrusting were also involved.Thrusting of ophiolitic melange over Paleocene ,and younger formations is obscured by tuffaceous cover of Miocene age ,and further tectonic movements.

  • Ophiolitic melange

  • orogenic gravity

  • Alpine orogeny

  • Aktepe-Gökdere Region

  • Anonymous 1973, Ophlolites in the Earth`s Crust; Geelogv, 1, 2, 51-54.

  • Anonymous 1972, Penrose Conference on Ophlolite; Geottmes, 17, 12, 24-25.

  • Ami, P., 1942, Anadolu ofiyolitlernin yaşlarına mütedair malûmat, M.T.A. Dergisi, No. y26. s - 472-480.

  • Bailey, E. B., McCallien, W. ., 1950, The Ankara Melange and the Anatolian Thrust. Nature, 166, 938-940.

  • Bailey, E. B., McCallien, W. ., 1953, Serpentine lavas ,the Ankara Melange and the Anatolian Thrust. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburg, 62, 11, 403-442.

  • Baykal, F., 1941, Kirckkale-Kalecllc ve Keskin-Bâlâ mmtıkalarmdaki jeolojik etüdler, M.T.A. Derleme Rap. No. 1448.

  • Blumenthal, M., 1945, Kuzey Anadolu`nun bazı ofiyolit mıntıkaları Lias`tan önceki devreye mi aittir?, M.T.A. Dergisi, No 33, 115-125.

  • Boccaletti, M., Bortolotti, V., Sagri, M., 1966. Richerche sulle ofioliti delle Catene Alpine: I. Osservazioni sull`Ankara Melange nella zona di Ankara, Boll. Soc. Geol. It., 85, 485-S08.

  • Buket, E., 1969, Geology of the Aktepe-Buğra Region, Kalecik, Ankara, Turkey, (Thesis) M.E.T.U., Geol. Eng. Dept., Ankara

  • Çapan, U. Z., 1972, Geology of Gökdere Region and its Ophiolte Suite, Kalecik-Ankara-Turkey, (Thesis) M.E.T.U., Geol. Eng. Dept., Ankara, 122p.

  • Erol, O., 1958. 41/3, 41/4, 42/3, 42^4, 43/3 No`lu paftalar sahasının jeolojik revizyonu ve korelasyonu hakkında raDor, M.T.A. Derleme Rap. No. 2647.

  • Ketin, I., 1961, Türkiye`de magmatik faaliyet, T.J.K. Bül., 7, 2, 1-15.

  • Ketin, I.,1962, 1/500.000 Ölçekli Türkiye Jeoloji Haritası ve İzahnamesi, (Sinop paftası). M.T.A. Ankara.

  • Ketin, I.,1963, lj/500.000 Ölçekli Türkiye Jeoloj Hartası ve îzahnamesi, (Kayseri paftası), M.T.A., Ankara.

  • Laht, E., Egeran, N., 1951, Kuzey ve Orta Anadolu`nun tektonik durumu hakkında not; M.T.A. Dergisi, 41, s. 28.

  • Norman, T., 1972a, Ankara Doğusunda Yansınan Bölgesinde Üst Kretase-Alt Tersiyer yağlı arazinin jeolojisi (Tez), O.D.T.Ü. Jeol. Müh. Böl., Ankara.

  • Norman, T., 1972b, Ankara Yahgıhan Bölgesinde Üst Kretase-Alt Tersiyer istifinin stratigrafisi; T.J.K. BÛ1.. 15, 2.

  • Norman, T., 1972c, Ankara Yansınan bölgesinde Üst Kretase-Alt Tersiyer sedimantasyonu: T.J.K. Bül., 16, 1, s. 41-67.

  • Norman, T., 1972d, Ankara Yahgıhan bölgesinin Eosen` den sonraki tektonik gelişmesi, T.J.K. Bül., 16, 1, s. 67-81.

  • Streekeisen, A., 1967, Classification and Nomenclature of igneous Rocks (Final Report of an Inquiry); Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie.

  • Les Rodingites Du Massif Ultrabasique Des Environs De Çelikhan Et Leurs Analyses Chimiques
    Özkan Pişkin
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    Abstract: Rodingites observed in the serpentinites, at approximately 30 km east of Çelikhan, (Adıyaman - EasternTurkey) were formed by different degrees of transformation from basic segregations of gabbroic origin. Following thepetrochemical studies, it is concluded that the rodingitisation has «been developed by solutions created during the serpentinisation ,and which permit the metasomatism of calcium ,and other elements. A comparison between chemical analyses ofthe different parts of the rodingites studied ,and the ones of already known rodingites in Turkey, establishes that, duringrodingitisation, the quantities of CaO, Na2O, K2O, SiO2, A12O3 ,and MgO have more / less been modified.

  • serpentinite

  • Rodingite

  • metasomatism

  • Turkey

  • Bassaget, J. P., Michel, R. et Richard, F. 1967, Les rodingites et les ophisherites du massif ultrabasique de la province de Muğla (Taurus occidental, Turquie). Comparaison avee les analyses ehimiques re

  • Benson, W. N. 1926, The tectonic conditions accompanying the intrusion of basic and ultrabasic igneous rocks. Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci. Washington, 19, No. 1.

  • Çoğulu, E. et Vuagnat, M. 1965, Sur l`existence de rogingites dans les serpentinites des environs de Mihaliççik (Vilayet d`Eskişehir, Turquie). Bull, suisse Mineral. P6tr. 45, 17-20.

  • Graham, R. P. D. 1917, Origin of massive serpentine and ehrysotile - asbestos, Black Lake - Thetford area, Quebec. Econ Geol, 12, 159-202.

  • Grange, L. 1927, On the Rodingite of Nelson. Trans. Proc. New Zealand Inst. 58, 160-166.

  • Hochstetter, F. Von 1864, Geologie Von Ned-Seeland. Beitrage zur Geologie der provinzen Auckland und Nelson. No vara - Exped., Geol. Theil. 1 (1).

  • Marshall, P. 1911, The geology of the Dun Mountain subdivision, Nelson. New Zealand Geol. Surv. Bull. 12, 31-35.

  • Miles, K. R. 1951, Garnetoized gabbros from the Eulamina district, Mt. Margaret Goldfield. Geol. Surv. Western Australia. Bull. 103/2.

  • Turner, F. J. 1933, The Metamorphic and Intrusive rocks of Southern Westland. Trans. Proc. New Zealand Inst. 63, 178-284.

  • Effects of The Tectonic Movements on The Geomorphology of Sultan Mountains
    İbrahim Atalay
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    Abstract: The effects in Sultan Mountains ,and their surrounding, of the Helvetian phase of the Alpine Orogeny werevery strong. Sultan ,and Emir Mountains uplifted as a block ,and Akşehir ,and Eber basins depressed as a graben due totectonic movements. Violent fluvial erosion began in Sultan Mountains ,and excessive sedimentation prevailed in the depressed areas. Akşehir, Eber ,and Karamuk basins were occupied ,by lakes since Miocene times. At the end of the UpperMiocene ,and in the Early Pliocene, violent tectonic movements became increasingly active. Finally the fault systems of Sul-tan Mountains were rejuvenated ,and new fault systems developed. Especially, a synthetic fault system formed as a parallel dip-slip normal fault system located along the north ,and north-east edges of Sultan Mountains. On the other hand,synthetic ,and antithetic fault system developed in depressed areas.There are two breaks in slope (threshold) on the stream profiles of Sultan Mountains. These breaks in slope havedirect relation to faults.Graaulometric ,and cumulative curves of Pliocene ,and Plioquaternary deposits to the north ,and north-east of Sultan Mountains, are logharltmic. These curves, too, indicate an accelerated process of sedimentation.

  • Alpine Orogeny

  • dip-slip normal fault

  • Sultan Mountains

  • transverse fault

  • threshold stream

  • Abdüsselâmoglu, §., 1957, Sultandağları`mn 1/100 000 ölçekli jeolojik leveleri hakkında rapor: M.T.A. Enst. Argivi, Rap. No. 2669, `Ankara

  • Atalay, İ., 1973, Sultandagları ile Akşehir ve Eber Gölleri havzalarının Strüktüral, jeomorfolojik ve toprak erozyonu etüdü: Yeni Desen Mat, Ankara (I. Bölümü basılmış. Dok. Tezi).

  • Atalay, t., 1972, Burdur Gölü havzasının jeomorfolojik - sedimantolojik etüdü: Orman Bak. Rap., basılmamış, Ankara.

  • Atalay, î., 1973, Akşehir, Eber ve Karamuk Gölleri havzalarının kuvaterner depoları ve jeomorfolojisi: Cumhuriyetin 50. yılı Yerbilimleri Kon. Tebliği, Ankara.

  • Atalay, î., 1974, Türkiye`de aktüel sedimantasyon problemleri hakkında bazı gözlemler Some observations about modern sedimantation problems in Turkey): Prospektör Der. Sayı 2, s. 105-116.

  • Chaput, E., 1942, Phrygie Tom. I, Geologie et Geographie physique: Inst. Françis d`Archfiologie d`Istanbul, s. 9-12.

  • Desprairies, A. - Gutnic, M., 1972, Les gres rouges au sommet du Paleozoique du Sultan Daf et les niveaux ferrallitiques de la couverture Mesozoique (NE du Taurus occidentale, Turquie): Bull, de la Soc. Geol. de Prance, Ser. 7, Tom. 1-2, No. 3, s. 505-507.

  • Erine, S., 1955, Die morphologische entwicklungstandien der Küçük Menderes Masse: Review of the Geog. Inst. of Univ. Istanbul, No. 2, Istanbul.

  • Erinç, S., 1973, Türkiye`nin şekillenmesinde neotektoniğin rolü ve jeomorfoloji-jeodinamik ilişkileri: Cumhuriyetin 50. yılı Yerbilimleri Kong. Ankara.

  • Haude, H., 1969, Das Alt-Palaozoikum Prakambrium bis Silurium in der Türkei: Zentbl. Geol. Palaont, Stuttgard, Teil 1.

  • Ketin, t, 1959, Türkiye`nin orojenik gelişmesi: M.T.A. Derg. Sayı 53, s

  • Ketin, İ., 1966. Tectonic units of Anatolia (Asia Minor): M.T.A. Derg. S. 66, s. 23-34.

  • Ketin, Î.. 1968: Türkiye`nin genel tektonik durumu ile bağlıca deprem bölgeleri arasındaki ilişkiler: M.T.A. Derg. Sayı 71, s. 63-67.

  • Sanır, F., 1948, Sultandağları`ndan Sakarya`ya ve Akşehir: Ulus basımevi, Ankara, s. 120.

  • Wenzel, H., 1932, Sultan Dagh und Akscheir Ova: Schr. Geog. Inst. Univ. Kiel, No. 1, s. 9-12.

  • Wenzel, H., 1935, Forschungen in Inneranatolien I. Aufbau und formen der Lykonischen Steppe: SCHR. Geog. Inst. Univ., Kiel. s. 9.

  • Yalçınlar, î., 1971, Türkiye`nin eski temel arazisinde araştırmalar: Türk Cog, Der. No. 24-25, s. 245-24G.

  • Yalçınlar, 1., 1971, Sultandagları ve Beyşehir bölgesinde Graptolitli Alt Paleozoik tabakaları: Jeomorfoloji Der. Yıl 3, Sayı 3, s. 33-35.

  • Yalçınlar, t. ve Atalay, t, 1973, Sultandagları, Eber ve Akşehir Gölleri bölgesinde îeoloiik ve jeomorfolojik müşahadeler: Cog. Enst. Derg. Sayı 18-19, s. 281-288.

  • The Bovinae Fauna of Middle Sinap
    İbrahim Tekkaya
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    Abstract: The Bovinae fauna of the Middle Sinap consist of Palaeoreas forachyceras Ozansoy, Palaeoreas elegansOzansoy. Palaeoreas lindermayeri Gaudry is unknown in this locality. The representataive of the Bovinae of the MiddleSinap, Palaeoreas braelıyceras Ozansoy was found in the lower part of the Middle Sinap series, is older thanPalaeoreas elegans Ozansoy. There are many different points on the morphological, biometrical, the cross-section ofthe base, the tip of horn-cores of Palaeoreas braehyeeras Ozansoy, Palaeoreas elegans Ozansoy., In addtion, thereare also different turning form of the horn-cores of Palaeoreas brachyeeras Ozansoy, Palaeoreas elegans Ozansoy. Theconcavities of the inside - outside of the horn-cores of Palaeoreas bracnyeeras Ozansoy are deeper than Palaeoreaselegans Ozansoy. First studying about the biometrical, graphical on the materials of the species of Palaeoreas hadbeen made to me. Thus, it will be possible to find the evolutive forms of the species of Palaeoreas.

  • The Bovinae Fauna

  • Palaeoreas braehyeeras Ozansoy

  • Middle Sinap

  • G-a.iu.dry,, A» 1862-67,. Animaux `fossiles et Geo- : logie de I/Attlque: Paris,,- 476 s

  • Gentry,, A, W.., 1971* The earliest Goats,, and other Antelopes from the Samoa, Hipparion fauna: Bull, Br. Bins, na t Hist. (GeoL), ` London, vol. 20, no. 6, 231-296..

  • Melentis,, J. K., `1970/Die Fikermifauna von Halmyropotamus (Euböa-Griechenland): Ann. GeoL des pays Helleniques, I serle, . Tom. 19,. 285-404.

  • Qzansoy, F. t 1957, Türkiye Tersiyer Memeli Faunaları ve Stratigrafik revizyonu: : M. T.A. Dergr. no., 4&, Ankara.

  • Ozansoy, P./ 1965, Etude des gisement oonti- : nentaux et. de^s Mammiferes de C€nozoique ` de Tnrquie: Mem. Soe. GeoL France» Pa- • ris, 92 s.

  • Tekkaya, -t., 1973 b, Gülpınar`daki fosil Bovidae kalıntıları hakkında bir not: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bfllt., Ankara, c. XVIr no. 2, 77-88.

  • Tekkaya,, î, : , 1974:, The: Bovidae fauna of Middle Sinap of Turkey: Türkiye Jeol.. Kur. Bült, Ankara, c. XVH, no. 1, 173- 186...

  • Etude f&irograpMqm Et Stratigmpkiqm de ta Region De Cacas (Massif de Bitlis» Turqute)
    Osman Yilmaz
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    Abstract: La Presenle etude a pour but. de reflecter la petrographie des roch.es de la region de Cacas. I*`article base surcette etude comprend pltıtöt les roches m6tamorphiques et granites herpyniens situes au Nord du charriage frontal duMassif de Bitlis,.,Les leves de terrains et les recherches petrographiques detailles ont mis en evidence la presence du socle -ancien et desa couverture epim^tamorphiqiie parmis les roches m&tamorphiques du. massif de Bitlis.On, s*est persuadâ que part les formations du socle ancien proviendraient du, metamorphisme dans les conditions deTalmandin-arapfaibolite facias et. oelles de sa couverture meiamorphisees dans le plus, faible,. quartz-albite-muscovite-chlorite subfacies- du greensc-hist facies de type Barrow et d`autre parti* hiatus dans les parageneses :ne pouvant s`expliquer quepar un polymâtamorphisme^Be surcroît, des etudes peixochimique et geochronologique qui seront discutees ult.6rieurem.ent» out justîfîees les conclusions tirees uniquement des considerations patrographiques. 

  • green schist facies

  • region de Cacas

  • Massif de Bitlis

  • Altınlı, t. E. 1963 - 1964, Explanotory text of the Geological Map of Turkey of 1/500.00 scale (Erzurum, Cizre and Van sheets) (türkçe ve ingilizce).

  • Cogne, J. et Eller, J. P. Von, 1961, Defense et illustration des termes leptynite et granulite en pâtrographie des roches mfitamorphiques. Bull. Serv. Carte G6ol. Als. Lorr. t. 14, fasc. 2, University Strasbourg.

  • Ibbotson, P. et al. (R. R. CO), 1969, Siirt - Bitlis Regional Mineral Survey, project: 1/2225, First Annual Report, vol. 1 M.T.A., Ankara.

  • Joung, J. et Brousse, R., 1963, Classification modale des roches eruptives utilisant les done`es fournies par le compteur de points. Masson et Cie., Paris.

  • Kellogg, H. E., 1960, Stratigraphic report, Bitlis -Siirt Area, Petroleum district V., Southeast, Turkey Petrol Dairesi Bsk. Tek. Ars., Ankara.

  • Tolun, N., 1953, Contribution â l`âtude gelogique des environs du Sud et du SudOuest du lac de Van. M.T.A. Bull. - no: 44-45, Ankara, p. 77-114.

  • Williams, H., Turner, P. J. and Gilbert, C. M., 1955, Petrography and introduction to the Study of rocks In thin sections. W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco.

  • Winkler, H.G.F., 1965, Die Genese der Metamorphen Gestein (La Genese des roches me`tamorphiques). Springer - Verlag. Berlin - Heidelberg. Traduction: von Eller J. P. et Wolf, M., 1966. Edit. Ophrys Gap-France

  • Yılmaz, O., 1971, Etude petrographique et gfiochronologique de la region de Cacas (Partie mgridionale du massif de Bitlis, Turquie). These de Doct. 3e cycle, University de Gronoble-France, 230 s.

  • Relationship Between Geological Setting ,and Genesis of Antimony Deposits
    Saldiray İleri
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    Abstract: Antimony deposits, among many other sulphide deposits, generally occur as vein type ,and found in closevicinity of volcanic areas. However, it is usually the case that the vein type of mineralization is related to volcanism,strata-bound type of mineralizotion is also expected to be formed in the same area. Subsequent geological events may causemobilization of antimony in .both types ,and change the original setting of the mineralization.Petrofabric analysis of stibnite ores, fluid inclusion studies ,and radiometric age determinations at the MurchisonRange, (South Africa) antimony deposits, revealed that the mineralization is contempereneous with the sediments ,andvolcanics. On the other hand, petrochemical analysis of stibnite ores ,and country rock at Niğde, (Turkey), antimonydeposits, showed that the ore was mobilized from a strata-bound source. 

  • Antimony deposits

  • vein type of mineralization

  • Murchison Range

  • Niğde massive

  • Anhaeusser, C. R., Mason, R., Viljoen, M. J. and Viljoen, R. P., 1969: A reapraisal of some aspects of Precambrian shield geology; Geol. Soe. Am. Bull. V. 80, p. 2175-2200.

  • Barnes, N. L., and Czamanske, G. K., 1967: Solubilities and transport of ore minerals, p. 334-381, in Barnes, H. L., ed., Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Ore Deposits: New York, Holt; Rinehart, and Wintson Inc., 670 p.

  • Boese, R., 1965: The antimony ores of the Murchison Range, Gravelotte area, eastern Transvaal, R.S.A., unpub. Ph. D. Thesis, Univ. of Hamburg, Germany.

  • Dennis, R. A., 1970: The mineralisation at the W-Sb-Hg Mine near Niğde, South Central Turkey, unpub. Msc. thesis, Univ. of Swaasea.

  • Graff, J. Ii., and Skinner, B. J., 1970: Strength and deformation of pyrite and pyrrhotite: Econ. Geol., v. 65, p. 206-215.

  • Hall, A. L., 1912: The geology of the Murchison Range and district, Geol. Surv. S.A. Mem. 6.

  • Imreh, L., 1967: Çamardı kuzeyindeki antimon cevherleşmesi, MTA rapor, no. 3749 Ankara.

  • Kalliokoski, J., 1965: Metamorphic features in North American massive sulphide deposites: Econ. Geol., V. 60, p. 485-505.

  • Me. Donald, J. A., 1967: Metamorphism and its effects on sulphide assemblages: Mineral. Deposita, V. 2, p. 200-220.

  • Kleyn, P. H. van der, 1971: Niğde Oamardı Masifinin güney batı kısmında cevher aramaları üzerine tavsiyeler: Yayınlanmamış M.T.A. raporu. Ankara.

  • Robinson, B. W., and Strens, R. G. X, 1968: Genesis of concordant deposits of base metal sulphides - an experimental approach: Nature, V. 217, p. 535-536.

  • Schull, H. W. 1971: X-ray pole figures of pyrrhotite, Ph. D. thesis, Columbia Univ. New York.

  • Schulz, L. G., 1949: A direct method of determining preferred orientations of a flat reflection sample, using a Geiger-Counter X-ray spectrometer, J. Appl. Phys. V. 20, p. 1030-1033.

  • Stanton, R. L., 1972: Ore Petrology. Me. Graw-Hill New York. 668 p.

  • Stanton, R. L,., and WJley, H. C, 1970: Natural Work hardening in galena and its experimental reduction: Econ. Geol. V. 65. p. 182-194.

  • Viljoen, M. X, and Viljoen, R. P., 1969: An introduction to the geology of Barberton granite-greenstone terraine, Geol. Soc. South Afr. Spec. Publ. No. 2, p. 9-28 Upper Mantle Project.

  • Viljoen, R. P., and İleri, S., 1972: The geology and mineralisation of portions of the Pozantıaagı (Nigde) Massif of South Central-Turkey. J.C.I. Co. Ltd. Unpub. report, 54 p.

  • Vokes, P.M., 1969: A review of the metamorphism of sulphide deposits: Earth Science Reviews, v. 5, p. 99-143

  • Vokes, F. M., 1971: Some aspects of the regional metamorphic mobilization of preexisting sulphide deposits: Mineral. Deposita (Berl.) v.b. p. 122-129.

  • Ypma, P.J.M., ana Beri, S., 1974: Fabric of deformed stitmtte: In preparation.

  • New Tectonic Features Observed On ERT8-A Satellite Imagery of the Northern Kızılırmak Basin ,and Their Tentative Interpretatioms.
    Teoman Nuriddin Norman
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    Abstract: ERTS-A. satellite imagery of.the Northern Kızılırmak basin, NE of Ankara, shows different, tectoniclimeation patterns for Kırşehir Massif in the SE» ,and the North Anatolian Fault Zone System, in the NW. The changeof pattern, seems to take place mainly across the Northern Kızılırmak basin (also known as the Çankırı basin), whichappears to be a gnaben, formed to compression. This may toe the location, of a closed trench, in which part of the Kırşehir Massif may have been dragged. Rocks of ophiolitic melange to the north of Yozgat seem to toe obducted southwardover the Kırşehir Massif. Clockwise hear movement, bad. probably started in the south affecting first the sedimentaryrocks covering the Massif. Later, the activity gradually shifted northwards to the present location of the North AnatolianFault Zone System. 

  • Kızılırmak Basin

  • ophiolitic melange

  • North Anatolian Fault Zone

  • ERT8-A Satellite

  • Erol, O., 1969: Tuzgölü havzasının jeoloji ve jeomorfolojisi: T.B.T.A.K. Raporu (yayınlanmamıştır) .

  • Ketin, t, 1962: 1:500 000 ölçekli Türkiye Jeoloji Haritası Sinop paftası izahnamesi (Explanatory text of the Geological Map of Turkey, Sinop sheet): Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitüsü yayını, Ankara.

  • Ketin, I., 1963: 1:500 000 ölçekli Türkiye Jeoloji Haritası Kayseri paftası izahnamesi (Explanatory text of the Geological Map of Turkey, Kayseri sheet) Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitüsü yayını, Ankara.

  • Tokay, M., 1973:Kuzey Anadolu Fay Zonu`nun Gerede ile İlgaz arasındaki kıs- mmda jeolojik gözlemler. (Geological ob¬servations on the North Anatolian Fault Zone, between Gerede and İlgaz): Kuzey Anadolu Fayı ve Deprem Kuşağı Simpoz- yıımıı (Symposium on the North Anato- Man Fault and Earthquake Belt), Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitüsü, Ankara.

  • Norman, T., 1973 a: Ankara doğusunda Üst Kretase - Tersiyer yerkabuğu hareketleri (Crustal movements in the east of An- kam durlng Upper Cretaceoua * Tertiary times): Kuzey Anadolu Fayı ve Deprem • Kuşağı simpozyumu* (Symposium on the North Anatolian Fault and Earthquake Belt), Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitüsü, Ankara.

  • Norman, T*, 1973 b: Ankara Yahşihan böl¬gesinin Eosen`den sonraki tektonik geliş¬mesi (Post-Eocene tectonic development of Ankara Yahgıhan region): Türkiye Je¬oloji Kurumu Bülteni, XVI, 67-81

  • Application of Computer ,and Finite Elements Method to Lithology ,and Stress Analysis in Earth Sciences
    Kadri Erçin Kasapoğlu
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    Abstract: Computer ,and finite-elements method have a very wide range of application in various fields of earth sciences. The results to be obtained from these applications may be of critical importance towards the advancement of ourknowledge of the physical constitution of the earth crust. The purpose of this paper is to introduce to earth scientists thefinite-elements method ,and its application techniques for the solution of various structural problems. In the example givenhere in, the distributions of gravitational ,and tectonic stress components in an elastically heterogeneous material under flatground are shown. From these distributions, the affects of the lithological heterogeneity to the deformation mode of themedium, the points of critical stress concentrations ,and the possible fracture surfaces with their locations ,and directionscould be determined. From the model studies, employing the finite elements method ,and from the computer data, providing that they are interpreted correctly, practical solutions for some structural geology problems could be obtained.

  • finite-elements method

  • lithology analysis

  • stress

  • Clough, R. W., 1965: The Finite Element Method in Plane Stress Analysis: Proc. Am. Soc. Civil Engrs., p. 129-378.

  • Howard, J. H., 1966: Bull. Geol. Soc. America, Vol. 77, p. 1247.

  • Livesley, R. K., 1964: Matrix Methods in Structural Analysis: Pergamon Press.

  • Robinson, I. S., 1966: Structural Matrix Analysis for the Engineer: John Wiley and Sons.

  • Turner, M. J., Clough, R. W., Martin, H. C. and Topp., L. X, 1956: Journal of Aeronautical Sci., n. 23, p. 805.

  • Voight, B. and Samuelson, A. C, 1969, On the Application of Finite-Element Techniques to Problems Concerning Potential Distribution and Stress Analysis in the Earth Sciences: Pure and Applied Geophysics (Pageoph), Vol. 76, p. 40-55.

  • Zienkiewicz, O. C, 1967: Finite Element Method in Structural and Continuum Mechanics: McGraw-Hill.

  • Zienkiewicz, O. C, 1964: Stress Analysis: John Wiley and Sons.

  • L`accident De Kırkkavak: Un Decrochement Nord-Sud A La Limite Du Taurus Occidental Et De La Depression Du Köprü Çay
    Jean F . Dumont İlyas Erdal Kerey
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    Abstract: La limite entre le Taurus occidental et la depression du Köprü Çay est tectonique, au moins dans la partie dedirection nord-sud, que nous nommerons l`accident de Kırkkavak. Cette limite correspond a un dâcrochement qui a fonctionnâ pendant le Miocene. Sur le trace de ce döcrochement se superpose une phase de compression posterieure au Miocene.La partie aü l`accident est decrochant s`observe entre Burmahan au Sud et le Deliömer Kayası au Nord. Des, Ğcailles tectoniques verticales sĞparent les marnes du Burdigalien â l`Ouest des shales triasiques â l`Est. La disposition des Ğcaillestectoniques suggere un decrochement de composante dextre. La partie chevauchante apparait au Nord du Dıeliömer Kayasıoû les calcaires mesozoiques du Taurus occidental viennent reposer sur le sommet de la serie miocene.

  • Kırkkavak Fault

  • strike slip fault

  • western taurus

  • Miocene

  • Bizon G. Biju Buval, B, Letouzey, J, Monod, O. Özer, B. Öztümer, E, et Poisson, A., 1974: Nouvelles precisions stratigraphiques concernant les bassins tertiaires du Sud de la Turquie (Antalya, Mut, Adana): RIEF, A9.29 (3), 306-327, Paris,

  • Blumenthai, M., 1951: Recherches géologiques dans le Taurus occidental dans F arrière-pays d`Alanya: M.T.A., série T>, n 5, Ankara»

  • Blumenthal, M., 196S- Le système structural du Taurus Nord Anatolien* in Livre à la mémoire du Professeur P, Fallot, Mém.t Soc, Qéolt France» Paris,

  • Factors Controlling Trace Element Distribution ,and Colour of Bulancak Sphalerites
    Ömer Tezcan Akinci
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    Abstract: As the copper ,and pyrite deposits of the Eastern Pontus ore province are known to be structurally controlled, structural characteristics of the sulphide veins ,and the Fe, Mn ,and Cd content ,and the distribution of theseelements in sphalerites of Southern Bulancak area (Giresun, Turkey) were investigated ,by means of detailed geologicalstudies ,and electron microskobe analysis.It is shown that lûKrieh sphalerites lie on a NW-SE trending zone while Fe, trending zone. These trends correlatewith two dominant fracture systems in the area. The low F,e-Content of the dark brown, black coloured sphaleritesshow no direct relationship between the colour ,and the iron content. 

  • sphalerite

  • sulphide veins

  • trace element

  • Bulancak

  • Akıncı, Ö., 1970: The effect of iron substitution on the cell size, reflectivity and colour of sphalerite: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Durham, England. Unpublish.

  • Akıncı, Ö.,1974: The geology and mineralogy of copper, lead, zinc, sulphide veins from Bulancak, Turkey: Ph. D. Thesis, University of Durham, England. Unpublished.

  • Akıncı, Ö.,1975: On the Discovery of Betekhtinite in the Bulancak (Giresun-Turkey) sulphide veins: MTA Derg., 85, (Baskıda).

  • Baker III, A., 1960: Chalcopyrite blebs in sphalerite at Johnson Camp, Arizona: Econ. Geol., 55, 387-398.

  • Barton, P. B., Jr. and Toulmin, P. III., 1966:! Phase relations involving sphalerite in the Pe-Zn-S system: Econ. Geol., 61, 815-849.

  • Craig, J. R., and Kullerud, G., 1973: The Cu-Zn-S system: Mineral. Deposita (Berl.) 8, 81-91.

  • Donnay, G., and Kullerud, G., 1958, High temperature chalcopyrite: Carnegie Inst., Wash. Yearbook 57. 246.

  • Godovikov, A. A. and Ptitsyn, A.B., 1966: Entry of iron into sphalerite during hydrothermal recrystallization: Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 166, 102-105.

  • Gümüg, A., 1970: Türkiye Metalojenisi: MTA yayın no. 144.

  • Kronberg-, P., 1970: Doğu Karadeniz dağlarının (Kuzeydoğu Türkiye) tektoniği hakkında veriler: MTA Derg., 74, 57-65.

  • Kullerud, G., 1953: The FeS-ZnS system, a geological thermometer: Norsk. Geol., Tidsskr., 32, 61-147.

  • Pollak, A., 1961: Karadeniz sahilinde Giresun vilâyeti dahilinde Lahanos cevher yatakları: MTA Derg., No. 56, 40-52.

  • Eoder, E. and Dwornik, E. J., 1968: Sphalerite color banding: Lack of correlation with iron content: Am. Mineralogist, 53, 1523-1529.

  • Schroll, E., 1953: Uber Minerale und Spureelemente, Vererzung und Enstehung der Blei-Zink-Lagerstâtte Bleiberg-Kreuth, Karten in Österreich: Mitt, der Österr. Mineral. Gesellschaft, Sonderheft, 2, 1-60.

  • Schultze-Westurm, H. H., 1961: Das geologische Profil des Aksudero bei Giresin-Ein Beitrag zur NE anatolischen Mineralprovinz; MTA Derg., 51, 63-71.

  • Skinner, B. J. et al., 1959: Effects of FeS on the TJnitcell edge o£ sphalerite: a revision: Econ. Geol., 54, 1040-1046.

  • Black, G. A., et al., 1966: Optical absorption of tetrahedral Fe + 3 ((

  • Black, G. A., et al.,1967: Far infrared optical absorption of Fe`-`+ in ZnS... Ibid, 155, 170-177.

  • Sorokin, V. I., et al, 1970: Variation of the ao parameter with the content of iron in sphalerite obtained under hydrothermal conditions: Geochem. Int., 4, 361-363.

  • Sugaki, A. and Tashlro, C, 1957: Thermal studies on the skeletal crystals of chalcopyrite in sphalerite: Sci. Eepts. Tohoku Univ. Ser. Ill, 5, 293-304.

  • Tokel, S., 1973: The stratigraphical and volcanic history of the Gümüşhane Area, North-East Anadolia: Ph. D. Thesis, University Collage London, Dept. of Geology, unpubl.

  • Sedimentology of The Limestone Olistoliths of the Erzincan-Refahiye Area, Eastern Anatolia
    Cengiz Keskin Sungu L. Gökçen Emel Akkuş
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    Abstract: Epicontinental ,and partly basinal limestones of the Middle  Jurrasic-Lower Cretaceous together withpenecontemporaneous ophiolitic masses had been slumped down in to the sedimentary troughs ,and/ basins by thegravity slides in Upper Cretaceous time ,and, originated the limestone olistoliths which are preserved as multi-sized limestone mounds in the present ophiolitic complexes.The diagenetic ,and epigenetic changes in those limestones had followed by the dynamo-metamorphic activities wiclicaused generation of the martolized limestones ,and/ crush breccias. The prensence of the primary deposiitonal texturein the limestone olistoliths are concluded as clues of the modifying effects were superficial ,and limited.In the limestones of the study area (Rehafiye) which is one of those areas characteristics by ophiolitic olistoliths,following microfacies are discerned; a) Lime mud, b) Pelletoid lime mud, c) Mud supported (Lime wackestore), d) Grainsupported (Pack-grainstones) as "Sedimentary microfacies" ,and, e) Intermediate metamorphic (partly mar.blized limestones), f) Crystalline metamorphic (crush breccias) as "metamorphic microfacies".

  • Limestone Olistoliths

  • martolized limestones

  • ophiolit

  • crush breccias

  • Erzincan

  • Akkus, E.» 1973: Rehafiye (Erzincan) Bölgesi I-41-as ve b* paftaları, ana ofiyolit karmaşığı kireçtaşlarının petrolojisi {Diploma Çalışması): H. Ü. Müh. Fak. Yerbilimleri Bölümü, Ankara, 26 s.

  • Artan,, Ü., ve Sestini, G., 1971: Sivas - Zara - Beypmarı bölgesinin jeolojisi: M.T.A. Enst Dergisi, sayı 76» s., 80-97.

  • Ataman» G. ve Gökçen, S. Lr. 1975: Erzincan - Rehaffiye Bölgesi Sedimanter Jeolojisi III Kumlu istif kil fraksiyonu mineralojisi (hazırlanmakta).

  • Bathurst, R.G.C., 1971: Carbonate sediments and their dîagenesis: Developments in .Sedimentology 12,. Ellsevier pub. Co., pp. ©20.

  • Dunham, R. X, 1962: Classification of carbonate rocks according1 to depositiönal texture: Am. Assoc Petroleum Geologists Mem. No. 1,, p. 108-121.

  • Folk, R. Xi.,, 1962: Spectral subdivision of limestone types: Aim,, Assoc. Petroleum Geologists-, Mem. No. 1,, p. 62-84.

  • Folk, R. Xi.,1965: Same aspects of recrys-. tallization in. ancient limestones: S. 13.P.M. special publication, No. 13, p. 14-48.

  • Gökçen,. S. ir-, 1974: Erzincan` - Hehaflye Bölgesi Sedimanter Jeolojisi I: Ölistolit, Türbidit ve Olistostrom. Fasiyesleri: Hacettepe Fen,. Müh., Bilm.. Dergi No. 4, s,. 178-205

  • Gökçen , S. L., 1975: Erzincan - `Reh.afi.ye Bilgesi Sedimanter Jeolojisi IV: Bölge ` klastîklerinin `petrolojisi ve sedimantolojisl (hazırlanmakta)*

  • I:rwin» M. L.,. 1965: Creneral theory of epeîric ciear water sedimentation Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull.. Vol. 49,. p.. 445-449.,

  • Keskin» C, 1966,: Microfasies Study of the F`marhisar- Reef

  • Keskin, C, 1967;: Çelikli saası Karbonatlarının Mifcrofaslyes ve diyajenez İncelemesi, T.P.A.O. Baporu 397 (Basılmamış).

  • Larsen, G«, and Cilingar, G. V.., 1967: Diagenesis in. Sediments: Developments in sedimentology 8, Elsevier Pub, Co. pp., 551.

  • Moore, E. - C.; 1949: Meaning: of fades: Geol. Soc America Memoir 39, p.. 1-24.

  • Packham, G. H,.,. and Crook, K. A. W,,, 1960: Th.e principle of diagenetic fades .and some O`f its implications: The Journal of Geology Vol.. 68.,, no.. 4, p. 392-407.

  • Teodorowich, G. I*., 1961: Authigenic minerals in Sedimentary rocks: Consultants Brueau, New York,- N.. Y., 120 pp..

  • Wolf, K. H., 1965 a, Petrogenesis and Paleoenviroment of Devonian algal limestones of New .South Wales: Sedlmentology,, Vol. 4, 113-178

  • Wolf, K. H.,1.965 b: Gradiational Sedimentary products of Calcareous Algea: Sedimentology Vol. 5» 1-37.

  • Biostratigraphical Research of the Continental Neogene of the Çankırı - Kalecik Region
    İbrahim Tekkaya Zeki Atalay Mustafa Gürbüz Engin Ünay Mutlu Ermumcu
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    Abstract: The stratigraphy of the Neogene basin between Çankırı ,and Kalecik has been studied by vertebrate fossils ,and pollen determinations.In the region studied Neogene is represented by the Middle Miocene ,and Pliocene series. The Middle Miocene seriesconsists of two fossiliferous parts. The lower part of this is characterized by Anchitherium aurelianense CUVIER, Micromeryx flourensianus LARTET, Ustriodon splendens MAYET ,and the upper part by Amphicyon major BLAINVILLE,Trilophodon angustidens CUVIER fossils. Trilopmo don pentelicus LARTET, Hipparion gracile KAUP, Gazella gaudryiSCHLOSSER, Paleoreas lindermayeri GAUDRY, Tragoceros amaltheus ROTH et WAGNER are collected from the LowerPliocene series. The Neogene lagoon is bordered by this studies. The correlation of the species found in Turkey with thoseof Asia and Europe shows that the similar species existed in these places.

  • Neogene

  • vertebrate fossil

  • Biostratigraphical

  • Baykal, F.,, 1943, Kırıkkale - Kalecik, ve Keskin - Bâlâ mıntıkalarındaki jeolojik etttdler: M.T.A. Rap, No. 1448.

  • Bergounioux, F. M. et Cronzel, F. C.P 1973, Amphicyon major BLAINVIIALB din mioc€ne moyen. de Sansarı (Gers.):: Ann. de Paleon., t 59, fas. I, pp. 3-76, 47` fig.,, Paris.

  • Blumenthal, II. 1945,, Bolu civarı île Aşağı Kızılırmak mecrası arasındaki kuzey Anadolu silsilelerinin jeolojisi: M.T.A. yayını seri BP No. 13, Ankara.

  • Colbert,, EL H., 1939; Caraivora of the Tung GUT formation of Mongolia: Bull. Amer,. Mus. Nat. Hist., t, 76,, pp., 47-81, 19 fig. New York.

  • Dawson, 11. B», 1961, Ön two Ochotonids (Mammalia, Lagomorpha) from tbe later Tertiary of Inner Mongolia; Amer. Mus. No`vit.,, No.. 2061» 15 p., 7 fig-,. New York.

  • Deperet, C EL, 1887, Kecherches sur la. succesion des faunes de vert£br£s miocene de Vallee dw Rhone: pLXIII, Lyon.

  • Erol, O..,, 1955, Kalecik - Hasayaz - Termecay civarı jeolojisi hakkında rapor,, M.T.A. Rap. No. .28,2.

  • FHck, -C.. H., 1926, The Hemicyonae and. an American Tertiary`: Bull. Amer. Mus., Nat.. Hist,, t. 56. New York.,

  • Gaudry, A., 1862-67, Animaux fossiles et geologic de L`Attique, 75 pi, Savy... edit., Paris

  • Genet, V. E., 1963,, lies singes actuels et fossiles: Boubee,, In-8C , Paris.

  • Genet, V. E.,1969, La. rec&erche du primate ance`tre die L`Homme: Boubee in,-8°, Paris..

  • Ginsburg, L.» 1966, Les Amphicyon des Phosphorites du quercy: Ann. de Paleont., t,. Ill,, pp. 1-144, 21 fig.,, Paris.

  • Glnsburg, L. et Telles, A. M., 196®, Amphicyon giganteus» carnassier geant du Miocene» ibid., t, LIV, pp., 1-32, 31 fig.. I pi.

  • Gregory». W. K.. - Hellman,, 11. - Lewis, G, E., 1938-, Fossil Antropoids of the Yale-Cambridge India expedition of 1935,, Carnegie Inst., Washington

  • Helbing, H..,, 1928, Garnivoren .aus dem lliocen von. Ravensburg und Georgensgmtind, Eel... Geol.. Helv..» t. .21,, .Bale,

  • Lahn:l EL., 1945-, Anadolu`da Neojen ve 4, zaman volkanizmasi: T, Co,gr. Derg.. Sayı VII-VIII,, s., 32-49, Ankara

  • Leakey,, Li. S. B., I960, Adam`s ancestors: New York..

  • Lewis,, G. EL» 1934, Preliminary notice: of Man-li`ke apes from India: Amer. Jour. Sci.,, v. 227» part I

  • ilayet, L.f 1.908, Etude des Mammiferes des Faluns de la Touraine: Ann... Univ. -Lyon, N.S. I, 24..

  • Meoquenem, de R., 1Ö24, Conribution a 1/etude des fossiles de Maragha: Ann., Pal. t. XIII, Paris.

  • Ozansoy, F., 1957, Türkiye Tersiyer1 memeli faunaları ve stratigrafik revizyonları: M.T.A. Der. 49, Ankara.

  • Ozansoy, F.,1.96.5,, Etude des gisement continentaux et des Mammif€- res de C€nozoique de Turquie: Mem. Nat. Mus.. Hist, de France.

  • PavloviCp WL B..» 196®., Anales Gr^ologiques de: la peninsula Balkanique, Tom. 34, Belgrad.

  • Hicnard, M., 1946, Les gisement des. Mamnaaflares tertiaires: Mem. Soc. Geol. de: France,, Nou. serle,» Mem.. No,. 52.

  • Roman, F. et Vlret, J., 1934,. `La faune de Mammiferes du Burdigalien de la Romîeu (Gers.): Mem.. Soc G€oi. de France,, N.S., 9 (2-3), 67 p.,, 25 fig.,, 12 pi.

  • Scnaubt S.,, 1925, Hamsterartigen Nagetiere des Tertiars und Ih:re lebenden Verwandten: Abh.- Schw. Pal. Ges. 45

  • Stehlin, BL G. - Schanb, S., 1951., Die Trigonodonfie der Simplicidentaten Nager: Schw. Pal.. Abh. Bd. 67.

  • Tekkaya, î., 1974, The Bovidae fauna of Middle Sinap at Turkey;. Bull. Geol. Soc. Turkey» C.` X¥II» s.:r 1 Ankara

  • Young, C. C.f 1931, On a new Ochotonid from North Suiyuan: Bull. Soc. Geol. China, v. IX, fas. 3.

  • Yücel» T., 1954,, Deveci dağlan», .Kalecik arasında Kuzey Anadolu. dağları, ile te Anadolu intikal alanının, jeolojisine dair rapor: M.T.A. Rap. No. 1312,

  • Vereschaglnr N. K,, 1967, The Mammals of the Caucasus a history ol the evolution of the fauna, Israel.

  • Zittel, K. A., 1925, Text-book of Palaentology, London: Macmillan and Co.,, limited St. Martin`s Street, London.

  • The Structure ,and Metamorphism af The Bitlis Area
    Aydoğan Boray
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    Abstract: The structure ,and metamorphism of an area of 84 km.2 lying on the Taurus mountains of South-East Turkey was studied. The country around the city of Bitlis was mapped on 1/10 000 scale. The stratigraphical relations ofthe metamorphic rock units are quite obscure. Two major rock units mainly composed of unfossiliferous metamorphicrocks are distinguished on the basis of structural ,and petrographic evidences. Three deformation phases accompanied withprogressive ,and retrogressive metamorphism were distinguished.In the first phase, penetrative foliation which is subparallel to original bedding, has been produced. In the secondphase both bedding ,and foliation have been deformed by tight folding. Open folds ,and an incipient foliation have developed in the third phase. The rocks are metamorphosed to the biotite ,and garnet grade of the greenschist facies. The age ofthis metamorphism is still debatable. Intense thrusting of Alpine age ,and dynamic metamorphism in these thrust zonesare observed. Dating of the metamorphic events in the Bitlis massif are discussed in the light of data obtained from Bitlis ,and adjacent areas. 

  • Metamorphism

  • biotite

  • penetrative foliation

  • Bitlis

  • Altınlı, 1. E., 1966, Doğu ve Güneydoğu Anadolu`nun Jeolojisi, M.T.A. Bül., 66, 35-74.

  • Boray, A., 1973, The structure and Metamorphism of the Bitlis Area, South-East Turkey, University of London, Yaymlanmamıg doktora tezi.

  • Hall, R., 1974, The Structure and Petrology of an Ophiolitic Melange near Mutki, Bitlis Province, Turkey, University of London, Yayımlanmamış doktora tezi.

  • Ramsay, J. G., 1967, Folding and Fracturing of Rocks, Mcgraw-Hill, New-York.

  • Tolun, N., 1960, Stratigraphy and Tectonics of Southeastern Anatolia, Rev. Fac. Sci. Univ. Istanbul, Serie B, No. 25.

  • Turner, F. J., 1968, Metamorphic Petrology, Mineralogical and Field Aspects, McgrawHill, New-York.

  • Winkler, H. G. F., 1967, Petrogenesis of Metamorphic Rocks, Springer Verlag, NewYork.

  • Yılmaz, O., 1971, Etude Petrographique et Geoehronologique de la Region de Cacas, Univ. Gronoble, Yayınlanmamış doktora tezi.

  • Statistical Determination of the Zn/Cd relation for the Harşit - Köprübaşı (Tirebolu) Cu - Pb - Zn Mine
    Ethem Acar
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    Abstract: A linear correlation was found between Cd content ,and zinc wt % as a result of 77 ore specimen analyses for Harşit - Köprübaşı (Tinebolu) mine. Since the cadmium can be an economic by-product, its concentration canDe calculated (using the linear ,relation-ship) from the content of Zn present in the flotation stage.

  • cadmium

  • Cu - Pb - Zn Mine

  • Harşit - Köprübaşı mine

  • Acar, E., 1974, Doğu Karadeniz bölgesi Giresun ili dahilindeki bazı bakır-kurguneinko madenlerinin iz elementler yönünden önemi: MTA Derg. No: 82, s. 136-146.

  • Acar, E.,Ronçeviç, G-, 1970, Tirebolu Hargit-Köprübaşı baritik polimetalik zuhuru detay etüd raporu: MTA Deri. Rap. No: 4382 (yayınlanmamış)

  • Acar, E.,Novovic, T., 1972, Giresun - Tirebolu Hargit - Köprübaşı bakır-kurşuneinko madeni jeolojik araştırma ve ön rezerv etüd raporu; MTA Maden Etüd Argivi (yayınlanmamış)

  • Akın, H., 1974, Die buntmetall-komplex erzlagerest aette Harşit-Köprübaşı provinz Giresun Turkey; Tecnischen universitat, Berlin.

  • Aytekin, T., 1973, Karadeniz bölgesi bakır ve bakıra bağlı kurgun-çinko potansiyeli ve bu potansiyelin vrediği imkânlar: Maden Müh. Odası yayınları. Cilt 12, Sayı: 2.

  • Demirsoy, S., 1972, Maden yataklarının değerlendirilmesinde hangi elementler rol oynar: Maden Müh. Odası yayınları No: 8.

  • Deer, W. A., Howie, R. A., Zussman, I., 1967, Hock Forming Minerals, volume five nonsilicates: Longmans, 371 s.

  • Ramdohr, P., Strunz, H., 1967, Lehrbuch der Mineralogie: Stutgart.

  • Ramsdell, L., 1961, Journal of the mineralogical society of America, Washington, D. C.

  • Skinner, B. L., et al, 1959, Effects of FeS on the unit-cell edge of sphalerite: a revision: Econ. geol. v 54, s. 1040-1046.

  • Strunz, H., 1966, Mineralogische tabellen 4 auflage, Leipzig.

  • Vujanovic, V., 1972, Köprübaşı cevher zuhuru (kuzey doğu Anadolu): MTA Derg. No: 79, s. 17-21.

  • Geomorphology of The Filyos Valley ,and Adjacent Areas
    Yilmaz Güner
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    Abstract: Study of the geomorphological features of an area in Northern Anatolia furnished some critical data tobetter understand Quaternary development of Northern Anatolia. Investigation of numerous river terraces leads to theconclusion that the area suffered severe epeirogenic movements during Quaternary. The presence of a heavily dissectedold peneplain has been proven. The presence of the valey slopes strongly convex upward ,and the summit plains also indicate the important role played by epeirogenic movements in Quaternary shaping of the area.Geomorphological map of the studied area was accomplished during the present study.

  • Filyos Valley

  • Geomorphology

  • peneplain

  • Ardel, A., 1943, Trabzon ve civarının morfolojisi üzerine gözlemler. T. Cogr. Dergisi, sayı 1, s. 71^81.

  • Bilgin, T., 1963, Akçay batısında Akçay Pleistosen taraçaları. 1. Ü. Cogr. Enst. Dergisi, cilt 7, sayı 13, s. 159-163.

  • Erine, S., 1958 Karadeniz`in denizaltı morfolojisi, t. Ü. Cogr. Enst. Dergisi, cilt 5, sayı 9, s. 103-114.

  • Erol, O., 1952, Trabzon sekileri hakkında bir not. A. Ü. Dil ve Tarih Cogr. Dergisi, cilt 10, sayı 1-2, s. 125-135.

  • İnandık, H., 1958, Türkiye kıyılarına genel bakış., î. Ü. Cogr. Enst. Dergisi, cilt 5, sayı 9, s. 50-72.

  • Yalçınlar, î., 1958, Samsun bölgesinin Neojen ve Kuvaterner kıyı depoları, 1. tt. Cogr. Enst. Dergisi, cilt 5, sayı 9, s. 11-21.

  • Some Recent Tectonic Events in Turkey
    Ali Esen Arpat Fuat Şaroğlu
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    Abstract: Western half of the East Anatolian Fault Zone has been mapped for the first time. Its connection withthe Dead Sea Fault System has been confirmed. Types ,and senses of the movements along the East Anatolian Fault Zonesuggest northeasterly movement of the Arabian block rather than to the north.Some parts of the North Anatolian Fault Zone have been mapped. These maps show clearly the great earthquake danger presented by the North Anatolian Fault Zone.Southward tilting of the Menderes Massive has been documented. This tilting supports the view defending the activeuparching of the central part of the Menderes Massive.The presence of previously unknown active faults has been shown ,and the value of seismo-tectonic maps has oncemore pointed out in the light of these discoveries. 

  • Menderes Massive

  • East Anatolian Fault

  • North Anatolian Fault Zone

  • active fault

  • Turkey

  • Ambraseys, N. N., 1970, Some characteristic features of the Anatolian Fault Zone: Tectonophysics, 9, 143-165.

  • Ambraseys, N. N.,1971, Value of historical records of earthquakes: Nature, 232, 375-379.

  • Arpat, E. ve Bingöl, E., 1969, Ege bölgesi graben sisteminin gelişimi üzerine düşünceler: MTA Derg., 73, 1-9.

  • Arpat, E. ve Şaroğlu, E., 1972, Doğu Anadolu Fayı He ilgili bazı gözlemler ve düşünceler: MTA Derg., 78, 44-50.

  • Dubertret, L., 19S2, Carte geologique du Liban, Syrie et bordure des pays voisins, au 1:1000 000: Musee Hist. Nat., Paris.

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