Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni
Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni

Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni

1975 AĞUSTOS Cilt 18 Sayı 2
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Paleo Currents *and Submarine Landslides in the Lower Tertiary Sediments of Canlan - Çorum - Yozgat Basin
Teoman Nuriddin Norman
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Abstract: Variouspaleo-current ,and submarine mass- movement directions have been measured in the Lower Tertiarysediments of the region between Çankırı, Çorum ,and Yozgat, all situated to the east of Ankara. An attempt has beenmade to classify the:observed submarine mass-movements on the basis of their slide, flow / current origin. The author.believes that such an approach will. beı usefulin. the: interpretation ofthe sedimentation ,and tectonic activity during theformation of such mass-movements. Measured paleo-current directions have been used for the preliminary interpretationof the paleo-geography of this region.At this stage of the investigations, it appears that this region has basically a complex structural frame. The basement of Çankırı basin, situated in the northern part of this region, has been fractured by ENE - WSW oriented faultswhich were active during Lower Tertiary sedimentation. This basin was connected to neighbouring basins by narrowchannels, NNE - SSW oriented in the west ,and WNW - ESE oriented in the east. The basin as well as these channelshave been filled by various i submarine mass-movement. andpaleo-current material, formed during frequent tectonicactivities.

  • Paleo Currents

  • Submarine Landslides

  • Lower Tertiary

  • Bailey, B.B. ve McCallien, W.J., 1953, Serpentine lavas, the Ankara Melange and the Anatolien Thrust: Trans. Roy. soc. Edinburgh, 62, 408-442.

  • Bouma, R.H. ve Brouwer, A., 1964, Turbidites: Blsevier, Amsterdam, 254 s.

  • Buchardt, W.S., 1958, Orta Anadolu`da 1:100.000 ölsekli jeolojik harita çalışmaları hakkında rapor. (Çeviren: Z. Bengi): MTA Derleme Raporu, No: 2675.

  • Erol, O., 1954, Ankara civarının jeolojisi hakkında rapor; MTA Enstitüsü Raporu, No: 2491.

  • Ketin, t, 1962, Türkiye jeoloji haritası (1:500.000), Sinop izahnamesi: MTA Tayınlarından, Ankara.

  • Ketin, I., 1963, Türkiye jeoloji haritası (1:500.000), Kayseri izahnamesi: MTA Yayınlarından, Ankara.

  • Kuenen, P.H., 1953, Significant features of graded bedding: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull. 37, 1044-1066.

  • Kuenen, P.H. ve Carozzi, A., 1953, Turbidity currents and sliding in geosynclinal basins in the Alps: Jour. Geol. 61, 363- 373.

  • Kuenen, P.H., 1956, The difference between sliding and ttrbidity flow: Deep-Sea Research, 3, 134-139.

  • Norman, T., 1960, Azimuth of primary linear structures in folded strata: Geol. Mag., 97, No: 4, 338-343.

  • Norman, T., 1963, İngiltere`nin Göller Bölgesinde Ludlovian yaşlı paleo-akmtıların yönleri: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült, 8, 86- 91.

  • Norman, T., 1972, Ankara Yahgıhan bölgesinde Üst Kretase - Alt Tersiyer istifinin stratigrafisi: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 15, 180-276.

  • Norman, T., 1973, Ankara Yahgıhan Bölgesinde Üst Kretase - Alt Tersiyer sedimentasyonu: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 16, 41-66.

  • Norman, T., 1975, Kuzey Kızılırmak Havzasının ERTS-A uydusu tarafından çekilmiş görüntülerinde bazı yeni tektonik gözlemler ve bunların yorumlanması: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 18, 47-52.

  • The Structural State of K-Feldspars ,and Their Application as Petrogenetic Indicators in Menderes Massif
    Osman Özcan Dora
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    Abstract: The exposed core gneisses of the Menderes Massif had been sampled form three regions (form South toNorth, Çine ,and Ödemiş Massifs, Gördes Massif ,and Eğrigöz Massif). These samples had been investigated by the X-Ray,electronmicroprobe ,and microscopic methods .The cell parameters of K-feldspars ,and their bo, txm, tso, t2m values (thescattering1 probability of Al atoms in the four kinds of tetrahedrons) had been calculated from more than 50 samples bythe X-Ray Method. Chemical composition of K-fieldspars ,and their perthitic albite flakes ,and also coexistent plagioslaseswith K-feldspars had been determined by electronmicroprobe.From the point of structural view the calculated unit cell parameters, with small regional variations .display theK-feldspars to be in intermediate microcline state. Beside that, the K-feldsp,ars, derived as microcline f rom X-Ray filmsmust have been framed by very tiny triclinic domains .which could hardly be recognized by X-ray procedures. Also thetjO, tjin, tso ,and t2m values indicate that the studied crystalls are in intermediate microcline state.The An percent of coexistent plagioclases with K-feldspars shows a variation from 8 to 25. This variation is dueto Ca occurences of different values within the derived metamorphic rocks from sedimentary rocks. Over 17 >% Anvalues of plagioclase ,and observed poligonization texture of feldspar ,and quartz indicate that these rocks fiormed abovethe medium grade metamorphic phase (^,540°C).The results can be outlined under the scope of the petrogenetic evolution of Menderes Massif as follows: MonoclinicK-feldspar occurences in primary sedimentary units which had later .become Augen Gneisses of Menderes Massif, firsttransformed to triclinic forms by the rising temperature ,and then retransformed to monoclinic forms at the oligoclaseformation boundary (550°C).Occurence of sillimanite in the whole series from South to North indicates that the metamorphism reached to thebeginning temperatures of migmatization (680°C). But, triclinic metric, whick is a general retriclinization product inK-feldspar occurences in Augen Gneiss, conforms that the formation temperature is around 450° C. This evidence indicates that young alpidic phases made only retrograde metamorphic effects on Menderes Massif. The 66+4 milion yearsradiometric age of muscovites from Augen Gneisses near Çine shows an agreement with the age of the young alpidicphase. As a result, main metamorphic phases which caused to progressive metamorphism in Menderes Massif are olderthan that alpidic phase. 

  • Ayan. M., 1973, Gördes migmatitleri: M.T.A. Dergisi No. 81, 132-155.

  • Barth, T.F.W., 1956, Studies on gneiss and granite. I. Relation between temperature and the composition of the feldspars: Strifter Norske Vlden skaps-Akad. Oslo 1. Mat. - Naturv. Kl. No. 1, 3-16.

  • Başarır, E., 1970, Bafa Gölü doğusunda kalan Menderes masifi güney kanadının jeolojis ive petrografisi: Scien. Eep. of Fac. of scien. Ege Univ. No. 102, İzmir, 1-44.

  • Biedl, A., 1967. Programm zur Berechmıng des Pulverdiagrams aus Gitterkonstanten: Inst. f, nün., Ruhr-Univ. Bochnum (Yayınlanmamış).

  • Brinkmann, E., 1966, Geotektonische Gliederung von Westanatolien: N. Jb. Geol. Pal. Mh. 603-618, 6 Abb.

  • Brinkmann, R., 1967, Die Südflanke des Menderes - Massivs bei Milas, Bodrum und Ören: Scien Rep. of Fac. of Scien., Ege Univ., no. 43, Izmir, 1-12.

  • Brinkmann, R, 1971, Das kristaline Grundgebirge von Anatolien. : Geol. Rundsc han, Bd. 60, 886-899.

  • Bruno, E. ve Pentinghaus, H., 1974, Substitution of cations in natural and synthetic feldspars: Mackenzie, W. S. ve Zussman. J.,

  • Burnham, C.W, 1963, IBM Computer Program for least-squares refinement of crystallographic Lattice constants: Geophys. lab. Carnegie Inst. Washington IXC. Yearbook 61, 132.

  • Bürküt, Y., 1966, Kuzeybatı Anadolu`da yer alan plütonların mukayeseli jenetik etüdü: Î.T.Ü. Maden Fak. Tayım, 1-272.

  • Dietrich, R.V., 1961, Comments on the Twofeldspar geothermometer and K-feldspar obliquity: Cursillos Y Conferencias, Fasc. VIII, Instituto Lucas Mallada C.S.I.C. (Bspana), 15-20

  • Dora, O.Ö., 1969, Karakoca granit masifinde petrolojik ve metalojenik etüdler: MTA Dergisi, No. 73, 10-26.

  • Dora, O.Ö., 1972, Ortoklas Mikroklin Tranformation in migmatiten des Eğrigöz - Massivs: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., XV2, 131-152.

  • Dora, O.Ö., 1973, Egrigöz masifinde K-feldspat triklinitesi ile metamorfizma derecesinin saptanması: Scien. Rep. of the Fac. of Selen.,; Ege Univ., No. 148, 1-23.

  • Dora, O.Ö. ve Başarır, E., 1975, Menderes masifinin Aydm-Yatağan kesiti koyunda feldspatların strüktürel durumuyla jeoloji verilerinin korelasyonu: MTA Dergisi (hazırlanmakta).

  • Durand, G.L.A., 1962, Dikmen (Muğla) de bulunan pechblende zuhuru yaşının ölCülmesi: MTA Dergisi, 58, 144-145.

  • Empadr, 1969, Program for the calculation of microprobe analysis: Deprt. of Geology, Univ. of Toronto, Toronto (yayınlanmamış).

  • Goldsmith, R.J. ve Laves, F., 1954, The microcline-sanidine stability relations: Geochim et Cosmochim Acta, 5, 1-19.

  • Graciansky, P. de., 1966, La Massif cristallin du Menderes (Taurus occidental Asie Mineure) un exemple possible de vieux socle granitique remobilise: Revue de GĞographie Physique et de Gfiologie Dynamique, Vol. VIII, fasc. 4. 289-306.

  • Guidotti, C.V., Herd. H.H., ve Tuttle, C.L., 1973, Composition and structural state of K-feldspars from K-feldspar-j_ sillimanite grade rocks in notwestern Maine: Amer. Mineral., 58, 705-716.

  • International Tables for X-Ray Crystallography, 1965, Vol. I. Symmetry Groups: The Kynoch Press, Birmingham.

  • îzââr, E., 1971, Introduction to geology and metamorphism of the Menderes massif of western Turkey: Geology and History of Turkey, Ed Angue S. Cambell. Pet. Expl. Soc. of Libya, 495-500.

  • Kroll, H., 1967, Die Korrektion der Pulverinterferenzen mit Hilfe der Siliziumlinien mit einem Programm zur Dehnungs-/ Schrumpfungskorrektur von Röntgenfil men C`JAGOKOR): Min. Institut, Univ. Münster (Yayınlanmamış).

  • Kroll, H., 1971, Feldspâte im System K AlSi 9Oa - Na AlSi,Oc - Ca A19S1WOB : Al, Si- Verteilungen und Gitterparameter, Phasen-Transformationen und Chemismus: Dissertation, Min. Institut, Univ. Münster (Yayınlanmamış).

  • Kroll, H., 1973, Estimation of the Al, Si distribution of feldspars from the Lattice translations Tr 110 and Tr IK) I. Alkali feldspars Contr. Mineral, and Petrol., 39. 141-156.

  • Laves, F., 1960, Al/Si-Verteilungen, ÜhasenTransformationen and Namen der Alkalifeldsp&te: Zeit. Kristali., 113, 265-296.

  • Laves, F., 1961, Discussionscontribution to the paper by R.V. Dietrich, Comments on the two-feldspar geothermometer and K-feldspar obliquity: Cursillos Y Conferencias, Fasc. VIII, Inst. Lucas Mallada`, Espana, 15-20

  • Mac Kenzie, W.S., 1954, The orthoclase-ınıcrocline inversion: Miner. Mag., 30. 354- 366.

  • Marmo. V., Hytönen, K. ve Vorma, A., 1963, On the Occurrence of potash feldspars of inferior triclinicity within the Frecambrian rocks in Finland: Compt. Rend. Soc. Geol. Finlande, 35, 51-78.

  • Megaw, H.D., 1956, Notation for feldspar structures: Acta Crystallogr, 9, 56-59.

  • Öztunalı, Ö., 1973, Uludağ (Kuzeybatı Anadolu) ve Eğrigöz (Batı Anadolu) masifterinin petrolojileri ve jeokronoloıileri: İ Ü . Fen Fakültesi Monog., Tabii îlim!er Kıs., 23, 1-115.

  • Schuiling, R.D., 1958, Menderes masifine ait bir gözlü gnays üzerinde zirkon etüdü: MTA Dergisi, No .51, 38-42.

  • Schuiling, R.D., 1962, Türkiye`nin güneybatısındaki Menderes migmatitik kompleksinin petrolojisi, yaşı ve yapısı hakkında: MTA Dergisi, No. 58, 71-85.

  • Scotford, M.D., 1969, Metasomatic augen gneiss in greenschist Facies, western Turkey: Geol. Soc. of America Bull., 80, 1079-1094.

  • Smith, J.V. ve Mac Kenzie, W.S., 1961, Atomic, Chemical, and physical factors that control the stability of alkali feldspars: Cursillos Y Conferencias ,Fasc. VII. Instituto Lucas Mallada. C.S.I.C, Espana, 39-52.

  • Stewart, D.B. ve Ribbe, P.H., 1969, Structural explanation for variations in cell parameters of alkali-feldspars with Al/Si ordering: Amer. J. Scien., 267, 444-462.

  • Stewart, D.B. ve Wright. T.L., 1974, Al/Si order and symmetry of natural potassic feldspars, and the relationship of strained cell parameter to bulk composition: contribution at solidsolutionsmeeting, Orleon, 502-540.

  • Taylor, W.H., 1933, The structure c,f sanidine and other feldspars: Z. Kristallogr., A 85, 425-442.

  • Taylor, W.H., 1962, The structures of principal feldspars. Norsk. Geol. Tidsskr. 42 (2), 1-24.

  • Tomisaka, T., 1962, On order-disorder transformation and stability range of microcline under high water vapour pressure: Mineralogical Journal, 3, 5-3, 261-281.

  • Voli, G., 1969, Klastische Mineralien aus den Sedimentserien der Schottischen Highlands und ihr Schicksal bei aufsteigender Regional-und Kontaktmetamorphose: Habilitationsschrift, Inst. Mineralogie, Technische Universitat, Berlin, 1-206.

  • Winkler, G.F.H., 1961, On Coexisting feldspars and their temperature of crystallization: Cursillos Y conferencias, Fasc. VIII. Inst.

  • Winkler, G.F.H., 1970, Abolition of metamorphic facies, introduction of the four divisions of metamorphic stage and of a classification based on isograds in common rocks: N. Jahrbuch f. minerallogie, Monatschefte, 189-248.

  • Kinking ,and Twinning in Stibnite
    Saldiray İleri
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    Abstract: The mechanism of kink-bands, developed in experimentally ,and naturally deformed stibnite, could beexplained by studying them under the microscope ,and obtaining their X-ray pole figures. Naturally deformed stibniteis usually subjected annealing. Thus, twins, grains with low angle boundaries ,and elongated subgrains may be developed.When these features studied under microscope, some information is obtained about the deformation history of deformedstibnite.

  • antimonite

  • ore microscopy

  • deformation twinning

  • Graff, J.L,. ve Skinner, B.J., 1970, Strength and deformation of pyrite and pyrrhotite: Econ, Geol., 65, 206-215.

  • Hoffmann, W., 1933, Die structur der minerale der Antimonitgruppe: Z. Kristallogy, 86, 225-245.

  • İleri, S., 1973, Genesis and fabric study of stibnite ores at the Murchison Range, S.A.: Ph. D. thesis, Columbia university, New York.

  • Scavnicar, S., 1960, The crystal structure of stibnite, a redetermination of atomic positions: Z. Kristallogy, 114, 85-97.

  • Schull, H.W., 1971, X-ray pole figures of pyrrhotite: Ph. D. thesis, Columbia University, New York.

  • Stanton, R.L., 1972, Ore Petrology: Me Graw-Hill, New York, 668 s.

  • Wangs, S., 1973, Sphalerite pole figure analysis and microscopic textures, Matagami Lake Mine, Quebec: Ph. D. thesis, Columbia University, New York.

  • Geochemioal Leakage Anomalies in The Vicinity of Keban Mine
    Mümin Köksoy
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    Abstract: Primary ,and secondary dispersion patterns of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag, ,and Hg in the wallrocks ot the Keban PbZn mine have been studied. It was found that the wallrock anomalies developed adjacent to the ore deposit are narrow.This was mainly due to the poor permeability of the wallrocks ,and also to the presence of chemically active limestoneat the footwall which was replaced by the ore. On the other hand, however, it was determined that the residual hydrothermal ore solutions carrying these elements have migrated upward from the deposit, following permeable channelsalong both the massive limestone ,and the sericite-schist contact ,and along the majör fractured zones in the vicinity ofthe deposit. The flow of these solutions have resulted in the formation of leakage anomalies at the surface 200 m abovethe ore deposit.It was concluded that the extencive leakage anomalies, which may be present in the surrounding area, can be utilised in searching similar blind ore deposits. In fact, strong primary ,and secondary Cu and Pb - Zn - Ag anomalies aredetected around Kebandere area at the North of the known deposit. II is strongly recommended that these leakageanomalies should be tested for the presence of a possible blind ore deposit.

  • Keban PbZn mine

  • Geochemioal leakage anomalies

  • sidestone halos

  • Bolgün, M., 1971, Keban, Kudikan ve Zeytindag. 1970 AFMAG ve I. P. etüdleri raporu: Btibank argiv No: 331, (yayınlanmamış).

  • Ergin, K., 1963, Etibank - Keban Kurgun ve çinko madeni jeofizik etüdleri hakkında mücmel rapor: Etibank arşiv no- 58, (yayımlanmamıg).

  • Geoffroy, J., 1960, Keban kurgun ve çinko madeni: MTA Derleme no: 3096, (yayınlanmamış).

  • Köksoy, M., 1972, Keban madeni civarında cevherlegmeyle ilgili elementlerin dağılımları: MTA Derleme No: , (yayımlanmamış).

  • Köksoy, M., 1975, Keban madeni civarında elde edilen jeolojik, jeofizik ve jeogimik verilerin karşılaştırılmaları: Jeofizik, Türkiye Jeofizikçiler derneği yayın no : 6, 34 - 46.

  • Nemlioğlu, C, 1955, Keban simli kurgun ve çinko madeni P. S. etüdü raporu: Etibank arşiv no: 392. (yayınlanmamış).

  • Tolun, N.ı, 1950, Keban bölgesi jeolojisine dair notlar: MTA Derleme No: 1857., (yayınlanmamış).

  • Tolun, N., 1953, Fırat - Derebaca (Keban simli kurşun madeni) ga- , no: 2131, (yayınlanmamış).

  • Yüngül, S., 1954, Keban simli kurgun ve çinko madeni jeofizik etüdü: Etibank argiv no: 357, (yayınlanmamış).

  • Ziserman, A., 1969, Gelogical and mining study of Keban madeni: leri ve diğer yeraltı aramaları hakkında rapor» MTA. Derleme Etibank Genel Müdürlüğü için özel rapor, (Yayımlanmamış)

  • Geology of Ağızlar (Gölköy-Ordu) Lead-Zinc Occurrence
    Yusuf Ayhan Erler
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    Abstract: The lead-zinc occurrence in Ağızlar village of Gölköy township of Ordu province is a group of veins thatcut through altered biotite andesite. Five rock units whoseages ranging from Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary were differentiated by geologic investigation of the area. These are, from oldest to youngest, pyroxene andesite, biotite andesite,limestone, andesite, ,and basaltic dikes. Characteristic structural elements of the area are normal faults. Important oreminerals in the Ağızlar lead-zinc occurrence are sphalerite ,and galena; gangue minerals are quartz ,and pyrite. Accordingto their mineral content, two types of veins are distinguished in the area: pyrite veins ,and pyritic lead-zinc veins. Threepyrite veins ,and seven pyritic lead-zinc veins are found in the area. Wall rocks surrounding the veins were altered invarying intensity in zones as wide as 400 m. Alteration zones are sericitization as the veinward zone, argillization as theouter zone, ,and locally, propylitization as the outermost zone.

  • The lead-zinc occurrence

  • gangue minerals

  • Ordu

  • Atabek, S., 1946, Ağızlar köyü bakır madeni prospeksiyon raporu: M.T.A. Derleme, Prospeksiyon Raporu No. P. 2405, yayınlanmamış.

  • Bora, E., Erler, A., ve Ildız, T., 1970, Giresun G39-a2 ve G39-a3 paftalarının jeolojik etüd ve maden prospeksiyonu raporu: M.T.A. Derleme, Rapor No. 4438, yayınlanmamış.

  • Meyer, C, ve Hemley, J.J.., 1967, Wall rock alteration; Barnes, H.L., ed., Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits de: Holt, Rinehart, and

  • Petrascheck, W.E., 1955, Anadolu ve güneydoğu Avrupası metal provensleri arasındaki münasebet: M.T.A. Dergisi, 46-47, 46-57.

  • Ramovie, M., 1966, Metalojeni ve petrolojide jeolojik zaman faktörünün önemi: M.T.A. Dergisi, 671. 25-37.

  • Schultze-Westrum, H.H., 1959, Giresun vilâyeni Espiye sahasının jeolojik ve yatak bilimi bakımından etüdü (G41-a2 ve a3): M.T.A. Derleme, rapor No. 3090, yayınlanmamış.

  • Trend Surface Analysis ,and Origin of Mortaş Bouxite Deposit
    Eşref Atabey Sait İsmail Özkaya
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    Abstract: Trend surface analysis of the chemical data on Mortaş bauxite deposit indicates existance of a commonNW-SE axis. AlpOg, iand TiO2 percentage decreases, P^Og and Na percentage increases towards this axis. SiO2 behavesdifferently and decreases radially away from the center of the deposit. Contour maps of the chemical data indicateexistence of a few circular anomalous areas. A12O3 and TiQ, percent decreases and Fe 200 increases towards such anomalous points.Origin of Mortaş bauxite deposit is controversial, magmatic as well as sedimentary origin has been postulated. Ourobservations suggest that Mortaş bauxites may have formed as a weathering product of limestones. The common NW-SEdirection may correspond to the long axis of ia karstic depression. Anomalous points may correspond to limestoneblocks included in bauxite within such depression. The negative correlation between Fe 20 o and Al,O3 as wel as TiO,, andthe independent behavior of SiO may be explained by secondary leaching.

  • Mortaş bauxite deposit

  • limestone

  • Trend surface analysis

  • Blumenthal, M. ve Göksu, E., 1949, Akseki civarındaki dağlarda boksit zuhuratı, bunların jeolojik durumu ve jenezi hakkında izahat (Die Bauxit-Vorkommen der Berge um Akseki Erörterungen über ilire geologische Position, Ausmasse und Genese): MTA yayınları, Ankara, Seri B, no 14, 59 s.

  • Davis, J. C, 1973, Statistics, and data analysis in geology: John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, 550 s.

  • Goldschmidt, V. M.i, 1937, Principles of distribution of chemical elements in minerals and rocks: Jour. Chem. Soc. (London), 655-673.

  • Göksu, E., 1953, Akseki boksit yataklarının jeoloji jenez ve maden bakımından etüdü: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült. IV, 2, 79-140.

  • Rankama, K., 1963, Progress in isotope geology: Interscience Publishers, London, 705 s.

  • Wippern, J., 1959, Akseki boksitleri (Die Bauxit von Akseki): MTA, yayımlanmamış rapor no: 3076.

  • Study on Involutina Species Found in Taurus Mountains
    Zeki Dağer
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    Abstract: The descriptions of Involutina species are gdven and their stratigraphical levels are discussed. Involutingspecies is found in Turkey (Taurus) in various ages, places and association as follows.

    a) Upper Ladinian: Involutina gaschei praegaschei Zaninetti with association of Involutina eomesozoica (Oberhauser), Involutina sinuosa pragsoides (Oberhauser), Endothyra sp., Trocholina sp..

    b) Carnian: Involutina sinuosa pragsoides (Oberhauser), Involutina eomesozoica (Oberhauser), with associationojf Endothyra sp., Trocholina sp. and Endothyranella sp.

    c) Nonian: All the Involutina species (present in our text) with association of Trocholina permodiscoides Oberhauser and Milioliporsb sp..

    d) Rhetian: Norian association of Involutina and their associates are present with Triasina sp.. We thougt it asTriasina biozone.

    e) Liassic: Apearence of piliate Involutina species. Involutina Hassica (Jones).

  • foraminifera

  • Involutina

  • Taurus Mountains

  • Bronnimann, P., Poisson, A. ve Zaninetti, L. 1970. I/unite du Domuz Dağ (Taurus lycien-Turquie), Microfacies et Foraminifere? du Trias et du Lias: Ital. Paleont. 76. 1, 1-36.

  • Bronnimann, P., Zaninetti, L.., Bozorgnia, F., Dasht», G. R., Mastaghian, A. 1972. lıithostratigrafi and foraminifera of the upper Triassic Naiband Formation Iran: Revue de Micropale

  • Bronnimann, P., Cadet, J.P. ve Zaninetti, 1». 1973. Surla presence d`Involutina sinuosa pragsoides (Oberhauser) dans L`Anisien sup£rieur probable de Bosnie-Herzegorina meridionale (Yugoslavie): Riv. Ital. Paleont. 79.3, 301-336.

  • Graciansky, M.M. ve Lys, M. 1968. Presence d`une microfaune d`âge Ladinien probable dans Tune des unite`s allochtones du Taurus occidentale (Turquie): C.R. Acad. Sc. Paris. T. 267.

  • Koehn-Zaninetti ve Bronnimann, P. 1968. Une Foraminifere de la Dolomie principale des Alpes Calcaires septentrionale (Autriche): C.R. Stances SPHN Geneve, NS 2, 74.

  • Kristan-Tollmann. 1964. Beitrage zur Mikrofauna des Rhat: Mitt. Ges. Geol. Bergbaustud, Wien 14.140.

  • Oberhauser, V.R. 1956. Neue mesozoische Foraminiferen aus der Türkei: Klebesberg-Fetschrift der Geologischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 48. 193-200.

  • Oberauser, V.R. 1957. Ein Vorkommen von Trocholina und Paratrocholina in der ostalpinen Trias: Jb. Geol. B.A. Wien. 100.

  • Oberha-user, V.R. 1964. Zur Kenntnis der Foraminiferengattungen Permodiscus, Trocholina und Triasina in der alpinen Trias und ihre Einordnung zu den Archaedisciden: Verh. Geol. B.A., Wien. 200.

  • Salaj, X, Biely, A. ve Bistricky, J. 1967. Trias-Foraminiferen in den Westkarpaten: Geol. Prace, Bratislava, 42.

  • Weynschenk, R. 1956. Aulotortus, a new genus of foraminifera from the Jurassic of Tyrol, Austia: Contr. Cush. Found. Foram. Res., Newyork, 7.26.

  • Zaninetti, L.K. 1969. Les Foraminif6res du Trias de la RĞgion de FAlmtal (Haute-Autriche): Jarhbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt Sonderband, Wien. 14.

  • Zaninetti, L*., Bronnimann, P., Bozorgnia, F. ve Huber, H. 1972. Etude lithologique de la formation d`Elika dans la coupe d`Aruh, Alborz central, Iran septentrional: Archives des sciences. Socie

  • Zaninetti, L». ve Bronnimann, P. 1974. Etude micropale e`ontologique compared des Involutinidae des formation triasique d`Elika, d`Espahk et de Naiband, Iran: Eel. Geol. Helv., 67.2,403-418.

  • Effects of Reservoir Loading on An Artesian Aquifer
    Vedat Doyuran
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    Abstract: The artesian aquifers show elastic response to alternate loading and unloading of short duration. Astudy has been carried out in order to investigate the effects of loading ofi long duration an<} continuous discharge fromthe aquifer on the elasticity of the aquifer. The artesian aquifer, underlain by Pineview reservoir, in the State of Utah(U.S.A.), has been selected for this purpose. In this study.the long term reservoir level measurements and the waterlevel measurements taken from the observation wells were compared and evaluated. As a conclusion, under the conditions of loading of long duration and continuous discharge, a slight reduction in the aquifer elasticity and thus a permanent deformation in the skeleton of the aquifer has been observed. This deformation causes a reduction in the yield ofthe aquifer. 

  • The artesian aquifers

  • dam lake

  • pore water pressure

  • Doyuran, V., 1972, Geology and ground-water resources of Ogden Valley, Utah: Yayımlanmamış doktora tezi, Utah Üniversitesi, A.B.D.

  • Ferrir, J. G., Knowles, D.B., Brown, R. H., ve Stallman, R. W., 1962, Theory of aquifer tests: U.S. Geol. Survey WaterSupply Paper 1536-E, 69-174

  • George, W. O., ve Romberg, F. E., 1951, Tide-producing forces and artesian pressures: Trans. Amer. Geophysical Union, 28, 108-124.

  • Meinzer, O. E., 1928, Compressibility and elasticity of artezian aquifers: Econ. Geol., 23, 263-291

  • U.S. Geological Survey, 1965-69, Water resources data for Utah, Part 1, Surface water records: Salt Lake City, Utah.

  • Description of Two New Gastropod Species and One Sub-Species From the Lacustrine Sediments of Neogene Age Afyon, Turkey
    Mihriye Aynur İnal
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    Abstract: Systematic descriptions of two newly discovered Pyrgula and Corymbina fossil species £ronı Afyon-Gürleydk area are given.Samples of Pyrgula species are collected from the Lower Pliocene and Corymbina species from overlying beds.Pyrgula species are different from the species collected from Paratethys and West Anatolian region (Denizli). Thereforetwo new species: Pyrgula hoyrani n.sp., Pyrgula costata n.sp. are proposed. All of the specimens of our Corymbina rhodensis Bukowski show slnistral features; a new sub-species, Corymbina rhodensis senestris n.ssp. is proposed. 

  • Neogene

  • Gastropod

  • Afyon

  • Bukowski, G., 1893, Die Levantinische Molluskenfauna Der Insel Rhodus: Wien, 31-38.

  • Jekelius, E., 1932, Die Molluskenlauna Der Dazischen Stufe Des Beckens Von Brasov: Mem. Inst. Geol. Bom&mei; Bucuregti, 81-88.

  • Jakelius, E., 1944, Sarmat und pont von Soceni (Banat): Mem. Inst. Geol. Româmeı: Bucuregti, 112-164.

  • Taner, G., 1974, Denizli bölgesi Neojen`inin paleontolojik ve strati - grafik etüdü: Maden Tetkik Arama Ensütüsü Dergisi, Ankara, 83, 145-176.

  • Wenz, `W., 1942, Die Mollusken des Pliozans der rumanischen Erdöl - Gebiete: Senckenbergiana Wissen. Metteil. Sencken. Naturf. Gesell. 24: Frankfurt a.M., 3-26, 49-51.

  • A Model for The Formation Ofhydrated Borate Mineral Deposits
    Kemal İnan
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    Abstract: Economically important borate deposits were formed as chemical precipitates in lacustrine environments.Factors controlling the formation of these deposits are mainly the composition, pH and the temperature of motherliquors.Experimental studies and field observations show that Turkish borate deposits can conveniently be divided in twogroups; a-those which have shown a complete sequence of precipitation in a Na;2O-CaO-B2O3-H.2O system (Kırkatype), and b-aJl other known deposits that do not contain Na borate.Deposits of group (a) were most likely formed from a solution having NaoO7CaO ratio close to unity and above,provided that the solution contains the necessary B concentration. The result of precipitation from such a solution would give a vertical sequence of Ca, Na-Ca and Na borate layers which indicates gradual increase in concentration within the lakesystem. The lateral variation in such a deposit is that Na-borates are dominant at the central and deepest parts of thedeposit. These Na-borate layers are progressively transformed in Na-Ca and Ca-borates towards the edge of thebasin.

  • borate deposits

  • lake facies

  • Turkey

  • Baysal, O., 1973, Sarıkaya (Kırka) borat yataklarının oluşumu: S. Türkiye Madencilik BU. ve Tek. Kongr., 255-277.

  • Borchert, H., ve Muir, O.R., 1964, Salt deposits: The origin, Metamorphism and Deformation of Evaporites: D. Van Nostr., London, 190 s.

  • Bowser, S.C., 1964, Geochemistry and petrology of sodium borate in nonmarine evaporite environments: Ph. D. Thesis, Univ. Calif, at Los Angeles, 110 s.

  • Foshag, W., 1921, The origin of colemanite deposits: Bcon. Geol., 16, 166-214.

  • İnan, K., 1972, New borate district, Eskigehir-Kırka province, Turkey: Inst. Mining and Met, 81, B163-165.

  • İnan, K., Dunham, A.C., ve Esson, X, 1973, The mperalogy, geochemistry and origin of the Kırka borate deposit. Eskişehir province, Turkey: Inst. Mining and Met., 82, B114-123.

  • Krauskopf, B.K., 1967, Introduction to geochemistry: McGraw-Hill, New York, 331 s.

  • Özpeker, Î., 1968, Biati Anadolu borat yataklarının mukayeseli jenetik etüdü: Doktora tezi, 1st. Tek. Univ., 110 s.

  • Yarzhemskii, Y. Y., 1968, Possibility of sedimentation of borate from eutönic brine in salinogenic basins of marine type Int. Geol. Rev., 10 (2), 1096-1102.

  • Basic Geological Study of Southern Lake of Eğridir
    Jean P. Dumont İlyas Erdal Kerey
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    Abstract: The area studied lies to the north of gulf of Antalya and to the SE of Lake Eğridir.The aim of the study is to find out the basic geological problems of the area lying between central and westernTaurus Mountains and the relation between middle and western Taurus Mountains.In the research area, the rocks are grouped as ` `Units" which are different from each other in stratigraphic andtectonic characters. These units are termed as Karacahisar unity, Oppiolitic Unity and Dulup Unity. All these units aretransgresively overlained by deposits of Miocene age.These units show similarites with the units found in the western Taurus Mountains by their tectonic and stratigraphic characters (Antalya nappes). They differ in tectonic style from central Taurus Mountains.

  • Lake Eğridir

  • Antalya nappes

  • Oppiolitic Unity

  • Elumenthal, M., 1963, Le systeme structural du systfeme Sud-Anatolien: in Livre a la memoire du Professeur P. Fallot, M^m. hs-sâr. Soc. GSol. France, 11, 611-662.

  • Brunn, J. H. ve diğerleri, 1971, Outline of the geology of the western Taurides in `Geology and History of Turkey`: Guidebook for the 13th field session of PESL, Tripoli, A.S. Campbell Ed., 225- 255.

  • Dumont, J. F., 1972, Decouverte d`un horizon du Cambrien k Trilobites, dans l`autochtone du Taurus de Pisidie, region d`Egridir, Turquie: C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, t. 274, 2435-2438.

  • Dumont, J. F. - Lys, M., 1973, Description de la serie Carbonifere du Gök Dağ (Visâen-Bagkirien) situee dans l`autochtone du Taurus de Pisidie (Göller Bölgesi), Turqule: 50. Yıl Yer Bilimleri Kongresi, Ankara, (Baskıda)

  • Dumont, J. F. ve Kerey, E., 1975, Kırkkavak fayı; Batı Toroslar ile Köprüçay beseııi sınırında kuzey-güney doğrultu atımlı fay: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült. 18, 59-62.

  • Dumont, J. F. ve Monod, O., La triasique du Dipoyraz Dağ, Taurus occidental, Turquie: M.T.A. Enstitüsü Dergisi, Ankara (Baskıda).

  • Juteau, Th., 1970, Pâtrogenese des ophiolites des nappes d`Antalya (Taurus lycien oriental, Turquie), leur liaison aven une phase d`expansion ocaanique au Trias supĞrieur: Sciences de la terre Nancy. 15, (3), 265-288.

  • Lef evre, R. ve Marcoux, J., 1970, Schema structural et esquisse stratigraphique des nappes d`Antalya dans leur segment Sudoccidenta 1 (Taurus lycien, Turquie): C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 271, 888-891.

  • Lefevre, R., 1967, Un nouvel aliment de la geologie du Taurus lycien: les nappes d`Antalya (Turquie): C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 265, 1365-1368.

  • Poisson, A.i 1974, Presence de Jurassique et de Cr6tac6 inferieur â facies de type plateforme dans l`autochtone lycien pres d`Antalya, massif des Bey Dağları s. 1. (Turquie): C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 278, 835-838.

  • The Stratigraphy and The Micropaleontology of The Marine Oligocene of Palu (NE of Elazığ)
    Ercüment Sirel Sait Metin Biler Sözeri
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    Abstract: This study concerns the recently discovered marine Oligocene series in Palu (NE of Elazığ) region emphasizing its stratigraphy and systematic study of its characteristic foraminifera.The rock units of Upper Cretaceous, Oligocene, Lower Miocene and Pliocene ages crop out in Palu ragion (NE of Elazığ). Upper Cretaceous sequence is composed of diorite, sedimentary rocks, spilite, serpentinite and albite - diabaseunits.The ophiolitic sequence is unconformably overlain by the Gevla Çayı Formation of Oligocene age. Gevla Çayı Formalion is composed of alternating conglomerate, sandstone, marl and Nummulitic limestone beds. This formation is unconformably ( ?) overlain by Okçular Formation of Lower Miocene age which is composed of algal and coral limestone.Systematic studies of Nummulites fichteli, Lepidocyclina (Eulepidina) dilatata Michelotti, Lepidocyclina (Eulepidina)favosa Cushman and Halkyardia maxima Cimerman, which are found in Gevla Çayı Formation, are given.

  • Oligocene stratigraphy

  • ophiolite

  • NE Elazığ

  • Baykal, F., 1948, Şerafettin ve Çotela dağlarında jeolojik görüşler: Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitüsü, Ankara, derleme no. 2212, (Yayımlanmamış).

  • Cimerman, F., 1969, Halkyardia maxima n. sp. (Middle Oligocene) and Halkyardia minima (Liebus) (Middle Eocene): Polsk. Tow. Geol. Roczrik (Soc. Geol. Pologne Ann.) Poland, Krakow. 39, 1-3, 269 - 300.

  • Cizancourt, M. de, 1935, MatSriaux pour la stratigraphie du Nummulitique dans le desert de Syrie: Bull. Soc. Geol de France, Paris, 4, 8-9, 737-758.

  • Cole, W. S., 1960, Upper Eocene and Oligocene larger Foraminifera from Viti Levu, Fiji: U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof, paper, Washington, D. C., 374 - A, 1-7.

  • Cushman, J. A., 1919, Fossil foraminifera from the west Indies; Carnegie Inst. Washington D. C., 291, 23-71.

  • Douvilte, H., 1924, Revision des L4pidocyclines; Premiere partie: Soc. G£ol. France, Mem. n. s., Paris 1, 2, 1-49.

  • Douvill^. H., 1925, Revision des LĞpidocyclines; Deuxteme et Troisiöme partie: Soc. G60I. France. Mem. n. s., Paris 2. 2, 51- 123.

  • Eames, F. E., Banner, F. T., Blow, W. H. ve Clarke, W. J., 1962, Fundamentals of mid - Tertiary stratigraphical corela tion - Part 1: Cambridge, England; University Press, 1 - 59.

  • Ellis, B. F. ve Messina, A. R., 1940, Catalogue of foraminifera: Amer. Muse. Nat. Hist, New York.

  • Ellis, B. F. ve Messina, A. R.., 1966, Catalogue of index foraminifera: Amer. Muse. Nat. Hist., New York, 1, 2

  • Ercan, T., Pehlivanoğlu, H., Soykal, T., 1969, Elazığ, Diyarbakır (Maden, Ergani, Guleman) bölgesinin jeolojisi: Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitüsü, Ankara, derleme no. 5038 (yayımlanmamış).

  • Grimsdale, T. F, 1952. Cretaceous and Terti ­ ary foraminifera from the Middle East: Bull. Muse (Nat. Hist.) Geol., London, 1, 8, 221 - 248.

  • Harpe, P. de la, 1883, Etudes des Nummulites de la Suisse et revision des Aspöces Eocene des genres Nummulites et Assilina; troisi&me et derniöre partie: Soc. Pal. Suisse, M6m., Basel. 10, 4, 141 - 180.

  • Joly, N. ve Leymerie, A., 1848, M^moire sur les Nummulites consid6r6es zoologiquement et gfiologiquement: Acad. Roy. Sci. In Scr. Belles - Lettres, Toulouse, France. 4, 3, 149 - 218.

  • Ketin, Î., 1946, Elazığ - Palu ve Pertek Bölgesinin jeolojik etüdüne ait rapor; Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitüsü, Ankara, no. 1708, (yayımlanmamış).

  • Ketin, t., 1947, Ergani — Eğil bölgesinin (pafta 80/4 ve 81/3) jeolojik etüdü hakkında mecmua: Maden Tetkik ve Aranın Enstitüsü, Ankara, no. 2015, (yayımlnn mamıg).

  • Marchesini, E. ve Facca, G, C., 1941, Stilin variabilita di Nummulites fichteli Ml< helotti: Paleontogr. Italica, Pisa, 40, HM 65.

  • Metin, S., 1969, Elazığ. K44 - a3 ve a4 pal falarının jeolojisi: Maden Tetkik ve Ara ma Enstitüsü, Ankara, derleme no. 5011b (yayımlanmamış).

  • Michelotti, G., 1841, Soggio storico dei 1(1 zopodi caratteristici dei terreni Sopracn tacei: Soc. Ital. Sci. Mem., Modena. 1!

  • Michelotti, G., 1861, Etudes sur le Mioe<>tı< införieur de l’Italie s6pentrionale: bL tuurk. Verh., Haarlem, 2, 15, 1 - 183

  • Montanari, L., 1961, Das Nunımulitikum v<-> Sciacca (Sizilien): Ecl. Geol. Helv., H<> sel, 54, 2, 570 — 579.

  • Silvestri, A., 1910, Lepidocicline Sannoisinm dİ Antonimina in Calabria: Acad. Pont Romana, Mem., Rome, 28, 103 - 163.

  • Silvestri, A., 1934, Su di alcuni Foraminlfeıi Terziaril della Sirtica: R. Acad. Itnl Rome, 3, 7 - 30.

  • Silvestri, A., 1937, Foraminiferi deli` Oligocene e del Miocene della Somalia: Palın ontogr. Italica, Siena, 32, 2, 45 - 264

  • Tolun, N., 1955, Elazığ, Keban, Çemİşkezı ve Pertek bölgesinin jeolojik etüdıl Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitüsü, An kara, derleme no. 2227, (yayımlanın, mış).

  • Stratigraphy of the South of Polatlı (SW Ankara)
    Ercüment Sirel
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    Abstract: Rock units of Upper Jurassic, Paleocene, Eocene and Neogene age crop out 10 km south of Polatlı. Limestones of Çaldağ Formation are definitely of Upper Jurassic age with Protopenoroplis striata Weynschek, LabyrintJiinasp. and Olypeina jurassica Favre. Kartal Formation ojf Lower Paleocene (Montian) age overlies uncomformably ÇaldağFormation, It is composed of conglomerate, lacustrine limestone, sandstone and lignite of laminations, which are deposited in delta enviroment. The marine limestone of the Upper part of Kartal Formation contains Rotalia trochidiformis Lamarck, Mississippina binkhorsti (Reuss) and Distichoplax biserialis (Dietrich). Kirkkavak Formation overlies uncomformably (?) the Kartal Formation. It is composed of sandstone, limestone and marls of Middle Paleocene (Thanetian) agewith Alveolina (G-lomalveolina) primaeva Reichel and Renz and Discocyclina sewnesv Douvilla at bottom. The upper partand the top of Kirkkavak Formation ise composed of sandy and clayey limestone, marls of Lower Ilerdian age with Nummulites solitarius de Lstf Harpe, N. eodlis Douville, Alveolia cucimijormis Hottinger and A. ellipsoidalis Schwager; MiddleIlerdian with RanikothaUa couisensis (d`Archiac) and Upper Ilerdian with Ranikothalia nuttalli (Davies) and the otherforaminifers. Eskipolatlı formation overlies uncomformably the Kirkkavak Formation and is composed of conglomerate,sandy and clayey limestone, sandstone and marls. The lowest levels o|f Eskipolatlı Formation is of Lower Cuisian age withNummulites planulatus (Lamarck) and Alveolina oblonga (d`Orbigny). The upper levels of this formation is of MiddleCuisian age with Alveolina canavarii Checchia ve Rispoli, A. lehn`eri Hottinger and the other foraminifers. Six new speciesof Alveolina are also established. 

  • limestone

  • lignite

  • Stratigraphy

  • polatlı

  • Burtterlin, J. ve Monod, O., 1969, Biostratigraphie (Paleocene a Eocene moyen) d`une coupe dans le Taurus de Beyşehir (Turquie), etude des `Nummulites cordelees` et revision de ce groupe: Ecl. Geol. Helv., 62, 2, 583 - 604.

  • Davies, L. M., 1927, The Ranikot bends of Thai:, Quart. Jurn. Geol. Soc, 83, 260 - 290

  • Dacı, Dizer, A., 1953, Kastomonu Nümülitiginin paleontolojik etüdü: 1st. Üniv. Fen Fak. Mec. B, 18, 3 — 4, 207 — 299.

  • Drobne, K., 1968, NouveUes observations au su sujet des couches de Trstelj en Slovente: Bull. Scı. Yougosl., Zagreb, Sec A, 13, 370.

  • Drobne, K., 1974, Des grande Miliolides des couches PalSocenes de la Yugoslavte du Nord - Ouest: Razprave, Ljubljana, 3, 17, 60s.

  • Drobne, K. ve Hottinger, L., 1971, Broeckinella und Saudia (Foraminiferida) aus dem nordwetlichen Teil Jugoslawiens, ihre Morphologie und ihre stratigraphische Verbreitung: Eazprave, Ljublijana, 4, 14, 215 — 237.

  • Drobne, K. ve Pavloveo, D., 1969, Les faciâs PalSocenes en Slovfinie: III. Simpozij dinarske asocijacije, Zagreb, 27 - 33.

  • Erol, O., 1955, Ankara civarının jeolojisi hakkında rapor, Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitüsü, Ankara, no. 2491.

  • Grimsdale. T. F.. 1962, Cretaceous and Tertiary Foraminifera from the Middle East: Bull. Muse. Nat. Hist. Geol. London, 1, 8, 221- 248.

  • Hottinger, L., 1960, Recherches sur les Alveolines du Paleocene et de I`Eocene: Mem. Suisse de Paleont., Basel, 75 — 76, 236 s.

  • Hottinger, L. ve Schaub, H., 1960, Zur Stufeneinteilung des Paleocaens und des Eocaena. Einführung der Stufen Ilerdien und Biarritzien: Ecl. Geol. Helv. 53, 463 — 480.

  • Kromm, F., 1968, Repertition des facies et position stratigraphique des formations Ilerdiennen en Gatalogne orientale; In Colloque sur L`Eoc`ne, B. R. G. M., Paris 209 — 218.

  • Neumann, M., 1958, Revision des Orbitoidides du CrStacâ et de Eocene en Aquitaine occidentale: Mem. Soc. Geol. De France, Paris, No. 83.

  • Norman, T., 1972, Stratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous - Lower Tertiary strata of Yahgihan area, east of Ankara: Bull, of the Geol. Soc. of Turkey, Ankara, 15, 2, 180 — 277.

  • Reichel, M., Sigal, J. ve Monod, O., 1969, Description d`une Laeazine nouvelle (Foraminiferes Miliolidâs) dans le PalĞocene du Taurus de Beygehir (Turquie): Rev. Espan, Micropaleontblogia, Madrid, 1, 3, 317 — 326.

  • Rigo de Righi, M. ve Cortesini, A., 1960, Regional sutudies, central Anatolia Basin, Progress Report. 1 — Stratigraphy 2 — Structure: Petrol Dairesi T. A., Turkish Gulf oil Com. 11/11 - 12i (Yayımlanmamıştır) .

  • Schaub, H., 1951, Stratigraphie und Paleontologie des ScMieren flysches mit besonderer Breucksinchtigung der Paleocaenen und Untereocaenen Nummuliten und Assilinen: Mem. Suisses Paleont. No. 68.

  • Schaub, H., 1966, Über die grossforaminiferen im Untereocaenen von Campo: Ecl. Gec-1. Helv., 59, 355 — 381.

  • Schmidt, G. C, 1960, Geological evaluation of the licences: District II, Petrol Dairesi, Ankara, 360 — 363 ve 365 — 367. (Yayımlanmamıştır).

  • Sirel, E., 1972, Systematic study of new species of the genera Fabularia and Kathina from Paleocene: Bull, of the Geol. Soc. Turkey, Ankara, 25, 2, 277 — 294.

  • Tambareau, Y., 1972, Thane`tien supSrieur et Ilerdien Inferieur des Petites Pyrenees, du Plantaurel et des Chaînons audois: Trav. Lobor. GSologie — Petrol, Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, 1/2, 377 s.

  • Villatte, J., 1962, Etude stratigraphique et paleontologique du Montieen des Petites Pyrenees et du Plantaurel: C. N. R. S., Toulouse, 331 s.

  • Villatte, J., 1968, Decouverte d`une esp^ce du genre Nummulitoides Abrard 1955 dans la zone â Operculina heberti — Discocyclina seunesi du Thane`tien des Petites — PyrSne`es.; C. R. Somm. Soc. Geol. Fr. 9. 299 — 300.

  • Weingrat, W.,, 1953, Ankara civarının jeolojisi: Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitüsü raporu, Ankara, No. 2248 (Yayımlanmamış).

  • Yüksel, S., 1970, Etude geologique de la Region D. Haymana (Turquie Centrale): Thâse, Faculte des Sciences de L` Üniversite de Nancy, France, 177 s.

  • The Occurrence and The Age of Miscellanea Meandrina (Garter) in Turkey
    Ercüment Sirel Özcan Aksoy
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    Abstract: The description of Miscellariea meandrina (Carter) is given and its stratigraphical level is discussed. Miscellanea meandrina is found in Turkey in various ages, places and association as follows:1) In Lower Paleocene (Montian), associated with Orduina erki Sirel, Orduina erki conica Sirel, Laffitteina sp.,Karamosphaera sp. and Lockhartia? at Gölköy (SW Ordu).2) In Middle Paleocene (Thanetian), associated with Alveolina {Glomalveolina) primaeva Reiehal and Renz, Dictyoconus sp., Lituonella sp. and Lockhartia sp. around Van.3) In Paleocene (Thanetian), associated with Alveolina (Glomahfeolina) primaeva Reichel and Renz, Discocyc Unaseunesi Douville, Operculina sp., near Polatlı (SW Ankara).4) In Upper Paleocene (Ilerdian), associated with Sakesaria cotteri Davies and Ranikothalia sp., near Diyadin (SEAğrı). 

  • Miscellanea meandrma

  • Paleocene

  • Turkey

  • Carter, H.J.ı, 1861, Further observations on the structure of Foraminifera and on the larger fosilized forms of sind, etc., including a new genus and species: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., London, 3, 8, 246-251, 309-333, 366-382, 446-470.

  • Carter, H.J., 1876, On the Polytremata (Foraminifera), especially with referance to their Mythical Hybrid Nature: Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., London, 4, 17, 185-214.

  • Nagappa, T.i, 1951, The stratigraphical value of Miscellanea and Pellatispira in India, Pakistan and Burma: Proc. Indin Acad. Sci., Bangalore, 33, 41-48.

  • Sirel, E., 1969, On the discovery of Onduina N. Gen., A New Genus of the Family Rotaliidae: Bull, of the Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey, Ankara, 73, 160-162.

  • Smouth, A.H., 1954, Lower Tertiary Foraminifera of the Qatar Peninsula: British Museum (Natural History), London, 90 s

  • Progressive and Retrogressive Failure in Discontinuous Rock Masses Subjected to "In - Situ" Shear
    Kadri Erçin Kasapoğlu
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    Abstract: The purposes of this work have been to obtain some general information on the actual mechanism of deformation and failure in both laboratory and `in-situ` shear test; and to shed light upon the development of progressive andretrogressive failure under varius test conditions.The study includes extensive laboratory testing and a theoretical approach to progressive deformation. In the latterapproach, a computer model of a shear block with certain discontinuities was developed. The method of calculation utilizes finite-element technique for the determination of the state of strain and stress in elastic and/or elastoplastic structures, for an assessment of the mechanical influence of a given discontinuity within the elastic structure, for a systematic evaluation of the effects of type of loading conditions on shear deformation and failure characteristics of the blockand to examine the actual mechanism of shear deformation and failure in a test block under direct shear loading. Thetheoretical program was accompanied by mechanisal laboratory tests designed to test the reliability and applicability ofconclusions suggested by the theoretical studies.It has been concluded that choice of boundarry conditions exerts an important control on failure mechanism. The tensile zones, which always develop within the test block, are of mechanical importance. Local failure which occurs in thesetensile zones, in the ‘separation’ mode, under certain boundary conditions, leads to progressive failure. Straight-linefailure envelopes can be interpreted as representation of a single (shear) failure mode. Parabolic failure envelopes aresuggestive of multiple modes of failure.‘In-situ’ shear tests on geological materials should be interpreted in more sophisticated terms; i. e., as a consequenceof variable combined stress state, involving inhomogeneous stress field; extensive stress reorientation, .and multiple crackpropagation.The theoretical approach to the mechanism of deformation and failure characteristics of `in-situ` shear tests, utilizingfinite-element method, appears to be a valid approach for prediction of certain experimental results. 

  • in-situ shear test

  • finite-element method

  • deformation

  • Dahl, H.D., 1969, A finite element model for anisotropic yielding in gravity loaded rock: Ph. D. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, 155 s.

  • Dahl, H.D. ve Voight, B., 1969, Isotropic and anisotropic plastic yield associated with cylindrical underground excavations: Proc. Int. Symp. on Large Permanent Underground Openings, Oslo, Norway, 105-110.

  • Evdokimov, P.D. ve Sapegin, D.D., 1970, A large scale field shear test on rock; Proc. 2nd Conf. Int. Soc. Rock Meeh., Belgrade, Yugoslavia, 2, paper 3-17, 5 s.

  • Henkel, D.J., Knill, J.L., Lloyd, D.G. ve Skempton, A.W., 1964, Stability of the foundation of Monar Dam: Int. Congr. Large Dams, 8th, Edinburgh.

  • Kasapoğlu, K.E., 1973, Progressive failure in discontinuous rock masses subjected to shear deformation; Ph. D. Thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 165 s.

  • Khair, A.W., 1971, A study of the mechanical properties of Berea sandstone for use in the A.G.A. large model studies: The Pennsylvania State University, Internal Report RMLIR/71-20.

  • Lajtai, E.Z., 1968, Shear strength of weakness planes in rock: Int. Symp. on Rock Meeh., Madrid1, 499-515.

  • Rosenblad, J.L., 1970, Failure modes of models of jointed rock masses: Proc. 2nd Conf. Int. Soc. Rock Meeh., Belgrade, Yugoslavia, paper 3-11.

  • Ruiz, M.D., Camargo, F.P. ve Nieble, C.M., 1968, Some considerations regarding the shear strength of rock masses; Int. Symp. on Rock Meeh., Madrid, 159-161.

  • Skempton, A.W., 1964, Long-term stability of clay slopes: Geotechnique, 4, 2, 75-102.

  • Voighb, B. ve Dahl, H.D., 1970, Numerical continuum approaches to analysis of nonlinear rock deformation: Can. Jour. Earth Sei., 7, 1, 814-830.

  • Wang, Y.J. ve Voight, B., 1969, A discrete element stress analysis model for discontinuous materials: Proc. Int. Symp. on Large Permanent Underground Openings. Oslo, Norway, 11-115.

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