Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni
Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni

Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni

1977 ŞUBAT Cilt 20 Sayı 1
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Tectonics of the Region Between Karaman-Ermenek (Konya)
Ali Koçyiğit
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Abstract: In the investigated area an ophiolitic melange unconformably overlain by Neogene sediments is exposed.The regional structure is charaeterized by narrow gravity faults of various strikes and to a lesser degree by folds. inaddition, there are several thrust faults and other local folds striking nearly E-W.Two structures were observed at the north and south margins of the investigated area. These form the highestparts of the region and consist of crystallized limestone blocks. The limestone blocks are covered by marine Miocenesediments at the east and the south of the area.During the Alpine orogeny and in close connection with it structures such as strike and dips, schistosity, boudinage, lineation, faults, joints, folds and unconformities were developed.

  • ophiolitic melange

  • limestone

  • boudinage

  • Konya

  • Blumenthal, M., 1956, Karaman-Konya havzası güneybatısında Toros kenar silsileleri ve Şist-radyolarit formasyonu stratigrafi meselesi

  • M.T.A. Dergisi, Sayı 48, s. 1-36, Ankara.

  • Niehoff, W., 1960, Mut 126/1 numaralı harita paftasının revizyon neticeleri hakkında rapor: M.T.A. Der. Rap., No. 3390, Ankara, yayımlanmamış.

  • Geology of the Üzümlü - Tuzaklı (Bilecik Province) Area
    Cavit Demirkol
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  • magmatic

  • transgressive

  • epeirogeny

  • Bilecik

  • Abdüsselâmoğlu, M. Ş. 1959, Almacık dağı ile Mudurnu ve civarının jeolojisi: İst. Üniv. Fen. Fak. Monog., 14.

  • Akartuna, M., 1968, Armutlu Yarımadası`nm jeolojisi: İst. Üniv. Fen. Fak. Monog., 20.

  • Altınlı, İ. E., 1965, Yenişehir havzasının jeolojik ve hidrojeolojik incelemesi: îst. Üniv. Fen. Fak. Mecm. Seri B, Cilt XXX, Sayı 1-2, s. 31-51.

  • Altınlı, İ. E., 1961, İzmit-Kurucadağ alanının jeolojisi: İst. Üniv. Fen Fak. Tatbiki Jeol. Kürsü (yayımlanmamış).

  • Arkell, W. J., 1956, Jurassic Geology of the world: Oliver and Boyd

  • Badgley, P. C, 1965. Structural and tectonic principles: Harper and Row, New York

  • Brinkman, R., 1971, Kuzeybatı Anadolu`daki Genç Paleozoyik ve Eski Mesozoyik: Maden Tetkik Arama Enst. Dergisi, Sayı 76, s. 61-74.

  • Code of Stratigraphic Nomenclature, 1961, Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull. v. 45, no. 5, p. 645-665.

  • Çoğulu, E., Delaloye, M. ve Chessex, R., 1965, Sur l`age de guelques roehes intrusives acides de la re

  • Dennison, J. M., 1968, Analysis of geologic structures: W. W. Norton and Company Inc.

  • Duff, P. M. D. Hallam, A. ve Walton, E. K., 1967, Cyclic sedimentation: Elsevier

  • Eroskay, S. O., 1965, Pagalar boğazı - Gölpazarı sahasının jeolojisi - Geology of the Paşalar gorge - Gölpazarı Area: îst. Üniv. Fen. Fak. Mecm. Seri B, XXX, 3.4, 135-170.

  • Folk, R. L.f 1959, Practical petrographic classification of limestones: Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geologist, 43, 1.

  • Folk, R. L., 1962, Spectral subdivision of limestones types, in Classîfication of Carbonate Rocks (Ham.

  • Granit, Y. ve Tintant, H., 1960 Observations preliminaires sur le Jurassique d ela re

  • Ketin, İ:, 1947, Uludağ masifinin tektoniği hakkında: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült, I, I, 60-87.

  • Krumbein, C. W. ve Sloss, L. L.., 1963, Stratigraphy and Sedimentation: W. H. Freeman and Company.

  • Mc. Elhinny, M. W., 1967, Statistics of a spherical distribution, Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 3, p. 313-321. Elsevier

  • Mehnert, K. R., 1968, Magmatites and the origin of granitle rocks: Eisevier

  • Okado, H., 1971, Classification of sandstone: The Journal of Geology, v. 79, no. 5, p. 509-525.

  • Öztunalı, Ö., 1967, Uludağ (Kuzeybatı Anadolu) ve Eğrigöz (Batı Anadolu) masiflerinin petrolojileri ve jeokronolojileri: îst. Üniv. Fen. Fak. Mineroloji ve Petrografi Kürsüsü (Doçentlik tezi).

  • Ramsay, G,, 1967, Folding and Practuring of rocks: Mc. Graw Hi11

  • Todd., T. W., 1966, Petrogenetic classification of carbonate rocks: Jour. Sed. Petrology, 36, 2, 317-340.

  • Travis, R. B., 1970, Nomenclature of Sedimentary rock: Bull. Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologist, 54, 7, 1095-1107.

  • Turner, F. J., 1968, Metamorphic petrology Mineralogical and field aspect Mc. Graw Hill Book Co., New York, I,ondon.

  • Ürgün, S., 1956, Gölpazarı-Geyve-Taraklı- Göynük civarının jeolojisi: Maden Tetkik Arama Enst. Derleme Rap., no. 2711 (yayımlanmamış) .

  • Whitten, E. H. T., 1966, Structural geology of folded rock: Rand Mc. Nally and Co.

  • Winkler, H. G. F., 1967, Petrogenesis of metamorphic rock: Springer Verlag.

  • Absolute Age and Genesis of the Sancaktepe Granite (Kocaeli Peninsula)
    İsmet Yilmaz
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    Abstract: Sancaktepe granite whieh is situated in Koeaeli peninsula to the north of sea of Marmara is known geolo-gically tobe Silurian in age. The purpose of this study is to determine the absolute age of the massif using geoehronologie methods andthe origin of it throungh tine data provided by geology, petrography and geochemistry. The age of the massif was found to be 25+--5 million years by Rb-Sr isochron method. K-A measurements made on the biotites of the granite show that this massif is 254million years old. On the basis of both methods which gave similar results, it could ,be indicated that the granite has onephase of fonnation during Saxonian (Permian) time by post-orogenic movements. This granite is alkaline and rich inquartz was hîghly evolved from the point of view of geochemistry. Initial ratio of Sr is very low, and this proves thatthe granite is deep seated, intrusive and juvenile in character. 

  • granite

  • Rb-Sr isochron method

  • biotite

  • intrusive

  • Koeaeli peninsula

  • Besair, EL, 1963, Géochronologie à Madagascar en 1962:Rapp. ann. serv. géol. Mad., yayınlanmamış.

  • Brunn, J. H.., 1960, Les zones helléniques internes et leur extension: Bul. Soc. Géol. France, 7ème série, 11,4,470-477.

  • Bürküt, Y., 1966, Kuzeybatı Anadolu`da yer alan plütonların mukayeseli jenetik etüdü: İ.T.Ü. Matbaası, 272 s

  • Gast, P. W., 1967, Isotope geochemistry of volcanic rocks: H.H. Hesse and A. Poldervaart, Basalt I, 325-328.

  • Flynn, H. F. ve Glandenin, L.. B., 1959, Half-life and beta spectrum of rubidum 87: Phys. Rev. 116,3,744-745.

  • Hurley, P. M., Hunt, J. M. ve Pinson, W. D., 1963, K-A values in pelagiquie sediments of the north Atlantic: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 27,393 s

  • Ketin, İ, 1960,1/2500000 ölçekli Türkiye tektonik haritası hakkında açıklama: Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitüsü Dergisi, 54, 1-56.

  • Nicolaysen, L.O., 1961, Geochronology of rock systems: Ann. N.Y Acad. Sci., 91, 198-206.

  • Distributions and Crystallographical Values of the Pyroxenes from the Volcanic Rocks of the Foça and Menemen Surroundings, Izmir- Turkey
    Mehmet Yilmaz Savaşçin Osman Özcan Dora
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  • pyroxene

  • crystallography

  • volcanic

  • Menemen

  • Andrâ, E., 1905, Eruptivgesteine im Nordwesten Kleinasiens: Doktora Tezi, Leipzig, yayımlanmamış.

  • Barth, T. F. W., 1956, Studies on gneiss and granite. I. related between temp. and the composition of the feldspars: Strifter Narshe Viden Skups. Akad. Oslo I. Mat. Naturv. KU 1, 3.16.

  • Besenecker, H. ve Pichler, H., 1974, Die jungen vulkanite der Insel Chios (östliche Agâls-Griehenland): Geol. Jb.. 9, 41-65.

  • Biedel, A., 1967, Program zur Berechnung des Pulverdiagrams aiıs Gitterboustanten: Inst. f. min., Ruhr-Univ-BOCHUM, yayımlanmamış.

  • Borsi, S., Ferrara, G., Innocenti, F. ve Mazzuoli, R., 1972, Geochronology and Petrology of Recent Volcanics in the Eastern Agean Sea: Pull. Vol., 36, 3, 473-496

  • Brown, G. M., 1960, The effect of the ion subtitution on celi dimensions of clinopyroxenes: Amer. Mineral., 115, 15-39

  • Burnham, C. W., 1963, IBM - Computer program for least-squares refinement of crystallographic lattice constants: Geophys. lab. Carneige Inst., Washington D. C, Yearbook, 61-132.

  • Dora, O. Ö., 1975, Menderes Masifinde alkali feldspatların yapısal durumları ve bunların petrojenetik yorumlarda kullanılması: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 18, 111-126.

  • Dora, O. ö., 1976, Die Feldspate als petrogenetischer Indikator im Menderes Massiv/Westanatolien: N. Jb. Miner. Abh., 127, 3, 289-310.

  • Edgar, A. G., Mottana, A. ve Macrae, N. D., 1969, The chemistry and celi parameters of omphacites and related pyroxenes: Min. Mag., 37, 285, 70-80

  • Green, D. H. ve Ringwood, A. E., 1969, The origin of Basalt magmas: Geophys. Monogr. 13, Amer. Geophs. Uni., 489-495.

  • Hijikata, K., 1968, Ünit-cell dimensions of the clinopyroxenes along the join CaMgSi(o OA - CaFe3 + AlSiOf i: Jour. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ., 14-2, 149-157

  • Innocenti, F. ve Mazzuoli, R., 1972, Petrology of the Izmir-Karaburun Volcanic Area: Bull. Vol. 36, 1, 1-22.

  • Kroll, H., 1967, Die Korrektion der Pulverinterferenzen mit Hilfe der Silizumlinien mit einem Programm zur Dehnungs/Schrumpfungskorrektur von Röntgenfilmen (JAGOKOR): Min. Inst. Univ. Münster, yayımlanmamış.

  • Ktenas, M. C. A., 1928, Sur le volcan de Pasthoura: Prak. Acad. Athen, 3, 226-249.

  • Kuno, H., 1955, Ion substitution in the diopside-ferropigeonite series of clinopyroxenes: Amer. Miner, 40, 70-93.

  • Kuno, H. ve Hess, H. EL, 1953, Unit celi dimensions of clinoenstatite and pigeonite in relation to other common clinopyroxenes: Amer. Jour. Sci., 251, 741-752

  • Savaşçın, M. Y., 1974, Beitrâge zur Frage der Genese Westanatolischer andesite und Basalte: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 17, 1, 87-171.

  • Savaşçın, M. Y., 1975, Foça yöresi volkanik kayaçlarmdan sağlanan ilk petrografik-jeokimyasal sonuçlar: TBTAK V. Bilim Kongr., îzmir, baskıda.

  • Smith, D. ve Lindsley, D. H., 1971, Augite crysta Nization trends: Amer. Mineral., 56, 225-233.

  • Viswanathan, K., 1966, Unit celi dimensions and ionic substitations in common clinopyroxenls: Amer. Mineral, 51, 429-442.

  • Winchell, H., 1961, Regression of physical properties on the compositions of clinopyroxenes: Amer. Jour. Sci., 259, 295-319.

  • The Relationship Between the Deformation History and The Elastic Anisotropy of Metamorphic Rocks
    Erdoğan Yüzer
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  • marble

  • calcite

  • elastic anisotropy

  • rock mechanics

  • Babuska, V., 1968, Elastic anisotropy of igneous and metamorphic rocks: Studia Geoph. Geol., 12, 291-302.

  • Brace, W. F., 1965, Relation of elastic properties of rocks to fabric: J. Geophys. Res., 70, 5657-5665

  • Friedman, M., 1964, Petrofabric techniques for the determination of Principal Stress directions in rocks, State of Stress in the earth`s crust: Elsevier, New York, 451-553

  • Kamb, B. W., 1959, Theory of preferred crystal orientation developed by crystallization under stress: Jour. Geol., 67, 153-170

  • Mc Donald, G. J. F., 1960, Orientation of anisotropic minerals in a stress field: Geol. Soc. America Mem. 79, 1-8

  • Mc Williams, J. R., 1966, Microstructural tec. hniques in the study of physical properties of rock: Int. J. Rock. Mech. Min. Sci., 6, 1-12.

  • Yüzer, E., 19*71, Marmara Adası Mermerlerinin mühendislik jeolojisi ve anizotropik özelliklerinin araştırılması: Tez. İ. T. Ü. Maden Fakültesi, yayımlanmamış

  • Yüzer, E., 1975, Taşlardaki mikrostrüktür süreksizliklerinin 2 ve 3 boyuttaki meka-nik anizotropiye etkisi: İ. T. Ü. Araş. İşl. Müt. Hey. Proje No: 41, yayımlanmamış.

  • Conodont Biostratigraphy in The Middle Taurus
    İsmet Gedik
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    Abstract: In the area studied Cambrian to Triassic systems are distinguished by the use of conodonts and their fauna isdeseribed briefly. It is believed that the metamorphic Alanya massif overlays the Sedre Triassic as a nappe, forming atectonic window. Hadimopanella oezgueli n. gen. n. sp. (incertae sedis) and three new conodont species are established.

  • conodont fauna

  • nappe

  • Hadimopanella oezgueli

  • Middle Taurus

  • Bassler, R. S., 1925, Classification and stratigraphic use of conodonts: Bull. Geol. Soc. Am.ı, 36, 218-220.

  • Bender. H., 1970 (1967), Zur Gliederımg der mediterranen Trias II. Die Conodonten - chronologie der mediterranen Trias: Ann. geol. Pays Helleniques, 19, 465-540, 5 levha.

  • Blumenthal, M. 1951, RecMrches gâologiques dans le Taurus occidental dans l`arrierePays d`Alanya: MTA Yayın. Seri D, No 5, 1-134

  • Budurov, K., 1973, Carinella n. gen. und Revision der Gattung Gladigondolella (Conodonta): Bulg. Akad. Wiss. Geol. Inst., Rechenschaftsbericht 26, 799-802, 1 levha.

  • Budurov, K. ve Stefanov S., 1965, Gattung Gondolella aus der Trias Bulgariens: Acad. Bulg. Sciences, Serie Paléontologie, Vol. VII. 115-127.

  • Branson, E. B. ve Mehl, M. G., 1933-34, Conodont studies 1-4: University Missouri Studies 8.

  • Branson, E. B. ve Mehl, M. G., 1938 a, The conodont genüs Icriodus and its stratigraphicdistribution: J. Paleont. 12, 156- 166, Levha 26.

  • Branson, E. B. ve Mehl. M. G., 1938 b, Conodons from the lower Mississippian of Missouri: Univ. Missouri Studies 13, OSMS, Levha 33-34.

  • Branson, E. B. ve Mehl, M. G. , 1941, New and little known Carboniferous conodont genera: J. Paleont. 15, 97-106, Levha 19.

  • Brunn, J. H. ve diğ., 1969, Rapport géneral des géologues Français travaillant dans les Taurides occidentales: CNRS, Ac. Sc Orsay, 1-58 (Teksir).

  • Dean, W. T. ve Monod, D., 1970, The Lower Paleozoic stratigraphy and fauna of the Taurus Mountains near Beyşehir, Turkey. 1. Stratigraphy: Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (GeoL), 19/8, 411-426, Şekil 8.

  • Diebel, K., 1956, Conodonten in der Oberkreide von Kamerun: Geologie 5, 424-450, Levha 1-6.

  • Ethington, R. L. ve Clark, D. L., 1971, Lower Ordovician conodonts of North America, in; Symposium on conodont biostratigraphy, W. C. Sweet ve S. M. Bergström, eds: Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. 127, 63-82, 2 levha

  • Gedik, t, 1975, Die Conodonten der Trias auf der Kocaeli-Halbinsel (Türkei): Paleontographica A, 150, 99-160, 8 levha.

  • Güvenç, T., 1965, Etüde Stratigraphique et micropalâontogiaue du Carbonifere et du Permien des Taurus occidentaux dans l`arriere-Pays d`Alanya: Th€se de Doctorat, Univ. Paris.

  • Hayashi, S., 1968, The Permian conodonts in cherts of the Adoyama Formation, Ashio Mountains, Central Japan: Earth Sci. 22 (2), 63-77, Levha 1-4.

  • Hinde, G. J., 1879, On conodonts from the Chazy and Cincinnati Group of the Cambro-Silurian and from the Hamilton and Genesee-Shale divisions of the Devonian in Canada and United States: Geol. Soc. London Quart. J. 35, 351-369, Levha 15-17

  • Hirschmann, C, 1959, Über Conodonten aus dem Oberen Muschelkalk des Thtiringer Beckens: Freib. Forsch. H. C. - 76, 33-86.

  • Huckriede, R., 1958, Die Conodonten der mediterranen Trias und ihr stratigraphiseher Wert: Palaeont. Z. 32, 141-175.

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  • Kozur, H., 1972. in: Kozur, H. ve MOCK, R., Neue Conodonten aus der Trias der Slowakei und ihre stratigraphisehe Bedeutung: Geol. Palaont. Mitt. Insburck, 2 (4), 1-20.

  • Kozur, H. ve Vegh, 1972, in: Kozur, H. ve Mock, R., Neue Conodonten aus der Trias der Slowakei und ihre stratigraphisehe Bedeutung: Geol. Palaeont. Mitt. Insburek, 2 (4), 1-20.

  • Lindström, M., 1955, Conodonts from the lowermost Ordovician strata of south-central Sweden: Geol. Fören. Stockholm Förhandl, 76, 517-604, Lev. 2-10.

  • Liindström, M., 1971, Lower Ordovician conodonts of Europe, in; Symposium on conodont biostratigraphy W. C. Sweet et S. M. Bergström eds: Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. 127, 21-62, 1 levha.

  • Mosher, L. C, 1968, Triassic conodonts from Western North America and Europe and their correlation: J. Palaeont. 42, 895-946, Levha 113-118.

  • Mosher, L. C, 1970, New conodonts species as Triassic guide fossils: J. Palaeont. 44, 737-742, Levha 110

  • Mosher, L. C. ve Clark, D. L., 1965, Middle Triassic conodonts from the Prida Formation of Northwestern Nevada: J. Palaeont. 39, 551-565, levha 65-66.

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  • Özgül, N. ve Gedik, İ., 1973, Orta Toroslar`da Alt Paleozoik yaşta Çaltepe Kireçtaşı ve Seydişehir Formasyonunun stratigrafisi ve conodont faunası hakkında yeni bilgiler: TJK Bült. 16-2, 39-52, 1 levha

  • Pander, C. H., 1856, Monographie der fossilen Fische des Silurischen Systems der russich-baltisehen Gouvernements: Königl. Akad. Wiss., St. Petersburg, 1-91.

  • Serpagli, E., 1974, Lower Orodovician conodonts from Precordilleran Argentinia (Province of San Juan): Bull. Soc. Palaeont. Italiana, 13-1,2, 17-98, levha 7-81.

  • Stauffer, C. R. 1940, Conodonts from the Devonian and associated elays of Minnesota: J. Palaeont. 14, 417-435, Levha 58-60.

  • Sweet, W. C, 1970, Uppermost Permian and Lower Triassic conodonts of the Salt Range and Trans-Indus Ranges, West Pakistan: Univ. Kansas Dept. Geol., Spec. Publ. 4, 207-275, 5 levha.

  • Tatge, U., 1956, Conodonten aus dem germanischen Muschelkalk : Palaeont. z. 30, 108- 127, levha 5-6.

  • Viira, V., 1974, Konodontı Ordovika Pribaltiki: Inst. Geol. Akad. Nauk ESSC, Riso No 899, 1-142, 14 levha, Tallin

  • Walliser, O. H., 1957, Conodonten aus dem oberen Gotlandium Deutschlands und der Karnischen Alpen: Notizbl. hess. L: Amt Bodenforsch. 85, 28-52. Levha 3.

  • Walliser, O. H., 1964, Conodonten des silurs: Abh. hess. L. -Amt Bodenforsch. 41, 1-106. Levha 32.

  • Ziegler, W., 1960, Conodonten aus dem Rheinisehen Unterdevon (Gedinnium) des Remscheider Sattels (Rheinischer Schiefergebirge): Palaeontol. Z. 34, 169-201, Levha 13-15.

  • Eocene Calc - Alkaline Andesites and Geotectonism in The Eastern Black Sea Region
    Selçuk Tokel
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    Abstract: Recent studies of the Tertiary volcanism in the Eastern Black Sea region (Gümüşhane-Alucra-ŞebinkarahisarGölköy) revealed that the voluminous andesites, dacites and pyroclastics are of Lutetian age. The suite is at the calcic end ofthe calc-alkaline suite. The rocks are oversaturated, quite sodic with Na2O > K2O and generally rich in Al2Oa. The AFM trend,the alkali enrichment and the trend of total iron-MgO ratio of the analysed rocks show that the chemical composition of theEocene volcanics of the Black Sea region are somewhat similar to the composition of the volcanic products which occur alongthe closing boundaries of the plates. it is probable that a trench occurred along the north Anatolian Land Continentalmargin. As the slab of oceanic floor of the North Anatolian Tethys, and the interstitial water incorporated in slab,descended beneath the North Anatolian land the voluminous calc-alkaline andesites resulted during the Lutetian. Theoccurence of the batholitic granites of Oligocene age, which are intensely exposed in the Black Sea region, implies thatthe rate of the plate motion was higher during Oligocene, as a consequence, high monutains emerged and regressionoccurred.

  • calc - alkaline andesite

  • batholitic granites

  • geotectonism

  • Eastern Black Sea region

  • Carmichael, I. S. E., 1964, The petrology of Thingmuli: J. Petrology, 5, 435-451.

  • Çoğulu, E., 1970, Gümüşhane ve Rize plutonların mukayeseli petrolojik ve jeokronometrik etüdü: Doçentlik tezi, İ.T.Ü. Maden Fak. İstanbul.

  • Daly, R. A., 1933, Igneous roeks and the depth of the earth: London McGraw Hill.

  • Dewey, J. F., ve Bird, J. M., 1971, Origin and emplacement of the ophiolite suite. J. Geophys. Res.,, 76, 3179-3206

  • Dickinson, W. R., 1970, Relations of andesites, granites and derivative sandstones to arch - trench teetonics: Rev. Geoph. Space Sci., 8, 813-846.

  • Dietz, R. S., 1963, Alpine serpentines as oceanic rind fragments: Geol. Soc. America Bull., 74, 947-952

  • Gedikoğlu, A., 1970, Etüde géologique de la région de Gölköy: These de 3é cycle, Fac. Sc. Üniversite de Grenoble, yayımlanmamış

  • Gorshkov, G. S., 1969, Geophysic and petrochemistry of andesite volcanism of the circum - Pasific belt: Int. Upper Mantle Proj., Proc. of the andesite conf., Sci. Rep. 16, 91-98.

  • Green, T. H., ve Ringwood, A. E., 1969, High presure experimental studies on the origin of andesites: Int, Upper Mantle Proj. of the andesite conf., 21-32.

  • Kalkancı, Ş., 1974, Géochronologie du massif syenitique de Kösedağ: Thése de 3e cycle., Fac. Sc. Üniversite Grenoble, yayımlanmamış

  • Kuno, H., 1969, Andesite in time and space: Int. Upper Mantle Proj Proc. of the andesite conf., 13-20

  • Miyashiro, A., 1975 Classification, characteristics and origin of ophiolites: J. Geology, 83, 249-281.

  • Macdonald, G. A., ve Katsura, T., 1964, Chemical composition of Hawaiian lavaş: J. Petrology, 5, 82-127.

  • Neprochnov, Y. P., Kosminskaya, I. P., Malovitsky, Y. P., 1970, Structure of the crust and upper mantle of the Black and Caspian Seas: Tectonophysics, 10, 517-547

  • Osborn, E. F., 1969, Experimental aspects of cale - alkaline differentiation: Int. Upper Mantle Proj., Proc. of the andesite conf., 33-49.

  • Oxburgh, E. R., 1974, The plain man`s guide to plate teetonics: Proceedings of the geologists` association, 85, 299-380.

  • Peacock, M. A., 1931, Classification of the igneous series: J. Geology, 39, 54-79.

  • Raleigh, C. B., ve Lee, W. H. K., 1969, Sea floor spreading and island - arc teetonics: Int. Upper Mantle Proj., Proc. of the andesite conf., 99-117.

  • Ross, D. A., 1974, The Black Sea: The geology of continental margins` de. Burk, C. A.., ve Drake, C. L., ed. Springer Verlag.

  • Sugusaki, R., 1976, Chemical characteristics of volcanic rocks: Relation to plate teetonic. Lithos, 9, 16-37.

  • Şenalp, M., 1974, Tertiary sedimentation in some part of the Çankırı - Çorum basin C. Anatolia: Ph. D. thesis, University of London, Imp. Coll., yayımlanmamış.

  • Şenalp, M., 1976, Derin deniz sondaj projesi, Karadeniz seferi: Yeryuvarı ve insan, 1, 31-39.

  • Tokel, S., 1972, Stratigraphical and volcanic history of the Gümüşhane region, N. E. Turkey: Ph. D. thesis, University of London, U.C., yayımlanmamış.

  • Tokel, S., 1973, Doğu Pontidlerin Mesozoik ve Tersiyerdeki gelişimleri, bu gelişimlerin Kuzey Anadolu sismik zonu ile muhtemel ilgileri: Cumhuriyetin 50. yılı yerbilimleri kongresi tebliğleri, 1-5.

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  • White, A. J. R., Jakes, P., ve Christie, D. M., 1971, Compositions of greenstones and the hypothesis of sea - floor spreading in the Archaean: Geol. Soc. Australia, special pub. 3, 47-56.

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  • Coastal Currents of Western Black Sea Using Landsat (Erts) Imagery
    Teoman Nuriddin Norman
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  • Landsat imagery

  • Coastal current

  • synoptic views

  • Western Black Sea

  • Carlson, P. R., 1976: Mapping surface current flow in turtaid nearshore waters of the northeast Pacific. U.S.G.S. professional paper 929, s. 328-329

  • Coker, A. E., Higer, A. L., Goodwin, C. R., 1976: Detection of turbidity dynamics in Tampa Bay, Florida. U.S.G.S. professional paper 929, s. 330-333.

  • Hunter, R. E., 1973: Distribution and movement of suspended sediment in the Gulf of Mexico off the Texas coast. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Symposium on Significant Results obtained from ERTS-1, İB, s. 1341-1348.

  • Marchuk, G. I., Kordzade, A. A. ve Skiba, Y. N., 1975: Calculation of the basic hydrological fields in the Black Sea. Izv., Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 11, 379-393.

  • Pluhowski, E. J., 1976: Dynamics of suspended sediment plumes. U.S.G.S. professional paper 929, s. 157-159.

  • Polcyn, F. C., 1970: Measurement of water depth by Multispectral ratio techniques. NASA, EROS Program, Third Annual Review, Houston, Texas, 3, s. 6107-6112.

  • Ross, D. S. ve Jensen, R. C., 1969: Experiments in oceanographic aerospace photography. NASA, EROS Program, Second annual Review, Houston, Texas, 3, 5101-5132.

  • Sherman, J. W., 1970: On the use of a single blue band in oceanography. NASA, EROS Program, Third Annual Review, Houston, Texas, 3, s. 6601-6610.

  • Some Petrogenetic Problems of The Kurdoğlu Contact Metamorphic Zone
    Yücel Yilmaz
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    Abstract: Kurdoğlu contact metamorphic zone consists of metapelitic rocks which surround the Gümüşhane granitepluton. These rocks were influenced by a complex metamorphic process before granite emplacement. The emplacement ofgranite increased the degree of metamorphism of metapelitic rocks from grencshist facies to hornblende-hornfelds facies.Then retrograde metamorphism took place in contact zone with the influence of deuteric and metasomatic processeswhich coincide with the late phases of the granite emplacement.Kurdoğlu contact metamorphic zone is characterised by absence of aluminum silicate (AL2O5) minerals (fibrolite andsillimanite). Another feature is the formation of an Fe-Mg mineral (almandine) whose P-T stability range is very narrow, againstcordierite. The formation of almandine must be related to high M/FM ratio in rock.Sillimanite occurs over biotites and in replacements of them. This relation was formed as a result of metasomaticoperations.Occurrence of temperature effect of granite in a very narrow belt is the result of intrusive pressure being at leastequal to lithostatic pressure. For this reason, quickly coolingmagma in the cold neighbouring rocks could not develop aheated zone of expected dimensions. 

  • granite pluton

  • grencshist facies

  • sillimanite

  • Kurdoğlu contact metamorphic zone

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  • The Upper Miocene Steneofibers (Rodentia, Mammalia) of Çatakbağyaka
    Engin Ünay
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    Abstract: The Steneofiber remains collected in Muğla-Yerkesik-Çatakbağyaka are studied. This genus is represented by twospecies: Steneofiber minutus ozansoyi n. s n. sp. and Steneofiber cf. jaegeri Kaup. The former is compared with the small Steneofiberfrom the Upper Miocene of the Middle Europe.

  • Steneofiber

  • The Upper Miocene

  • Çatakbağyaka

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  • Stromer, E., 1928, Wirbeltiere im Obermiocanen Flinz Münchens: Abh. der Bayer. Akad. Wiss. Math. Naturw. Abh. 32. 18-20.

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  • Ünay, E., 1976, Çanakkale Bölgesinde bulunan Steneofiber jaegeri (Rodentia, Mammalia): Maden Tetkik Arama Derg., 86, 93-98.

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