Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni
Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni

Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni

1986 ŞUBAT Cilt 29 Sayı 1
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The Usage of Sandstone Petrology in Sedimentologic and Tectonic Interpretation : An Example from Northeastern USA
Talat Özbek Kelvin S. Rodolfo
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Abstract: The Ramseyburg middle graywacke member of the Middle to Upper Ordovician Martinsburg Formation of Pennsylvania and New Jersey was analyzed petrologically in order to identify its provenances, with a view toward reconstructing the basinal and source-area evolution in a plate tectonic context. A total of 48 samples were studied, taken from seven localities along the Martinsburg outcrop belt,which extends for 220 km. These samples were analyzed for the following detrital grains: monocrystallinequartz, polycrystalline quartz, volcanic and sedimentary lithic fragments, plagioclase, and potassiumfeldspar. On each thin section, 500 points have been counted for these grains and been placed in triangular modal diagrams. Analytic data obtained from 200 basins which are formed by different tectonicregimes are represented by various parts of triangles. Therefore the relationship betwen tectonics andsandstone petrology are set up directly.Analyzed data reveal that the Martinsburg turbidites had two provenances: a more dominant recycled orogenic and a subordinate cratonic interior. The southwestern portion of the basin was dominantly fed by reworked Late Cambrian/Early Ordovician sedimentary cover, and the northeastern partof the basin received its elastics from granitic and gneissic plutons of the North American basementthat were exposed after the sedimentary cover was eroded. The rarity of predominantly basaltic detritusin the Martinsburg graywackes indicates that the arc provenance was not the prime source for thesesediments.The evolution of the Martinsburg basin and its source areas is accounted for by a plate tectonicmodel which requires the collision of the North American craton with an island arc or microcontinent left from Precambrian rifting. This proposed tectonic model provides additional insights regarding the emplacement of the Hamburg klippe, and of pillow basalts and thin volcanic ash layers presentelsewhere along the outcrop belt at the base of the Martinsburg Formation.

  • sandstone

  • pillow basalt

  • plate tectonic

  • North American

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  • A Palynologic Approach to the Neogene Stratigraphy of Some Area
    Funda Akgün Cengiz Alişan Erol Akyol
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    Abstract: In this study, economically important the lower and the upper lignite seams of the Somaarea have been examined palynologically. Palynologic determination of 16 different genera and 42species of sporomorphes indicates that the lignite series contain a microflora of Middle Miocene (EarlySerravalian) age.Qualitative and quantitative analyses of this microflora closely match with the EskiMsar pollenassemblages which give an age of Late Burdigalian — Early Serravalian.The spores and pollens of the region define a flora assemblage that indicates a dominance of theMediterranean or slightly more humid and hot climate during the deposition of the coal -bearing formations. 

  • lignite

  • sporomorphes

  • coal

  • Soma

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  • Paleokarst Related Zn-Pb Mineralization of Aladağ Mountains
    Mustafa Çevrim Volfram Echle Günther Friedrich
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  • The Zn-Pb occurrences

  • Permian and Jurassic limestone

  • Sulfide paragenesis

  • Aladağlar

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  • ROBERTS, W.M.B., 1967, Sulfide synthesis and ore genesis: Min. Dep., 2,188-199.

  • SMIRNOV, S.S., 1954, Die Oxidationszone sulfidischer Lagerstâtten: Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 312 s.

  • TEKELİ, O., 1980, Toroslarda, Aladağların yapısal evrimi: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 23, 11-14.

  • VACHE, R., 1964, Die Blei-Zink-Lagerstatte am Bakirdağ im Antitaurus (Provinz Kavseri): M. T.A. Derg., 62, 91-102.

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  • WEDEPOHL, K.H., 1953, Untersuchungen zur Geochemie des Zinks: Geochem. Cosmochim. Acta, 3, 93-142.

  • WEDEPOHL, K.H.,ed., 1978, Handbook of Geochemistry: Springer Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg.

  • WIPPERN, J., 1964, Toros boksitleri ve bunların tektonik durumu: M.T.A. Derg., 58, 47-70.

  • Genesis of Uranium Occurrences in the Yeşilyurt Area (Alaşehir) and Their Destruction by Postdepositional Alterations
    Hüseyin Yilmaz
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    Abstract: Uranium occurrences in the Yeşilyurt area of Western Turkey occur in fluviatile sedimentary rocks which are underlain by low-to medium-grade metamorphic rocks of the Menderes massif.These occurrences are found in Neogene conglomerate and sandstone beds that contain a matrix ofabundant clay and silt. Uranium is present as a matrix impregnation in tabular lenses within the sandstone and conglomerate beds. Both oxidized and unoxidized occurrences occur. Both types are disseminated uniformly throughout the fine grained clay and silt matrix rich in carbonaceous matter. Unoxidizeduranium occurrences show no direct correlation with pyrite and siderite abundance.Ore grade uranium (0.05 % U3O8) concentrations in the oxidized occurrences are confined to sandstoneand conglomerate beds with clay and hematite matrix containing little or no calcite whereas very lowgrade (< 0.01 % U3O8) uranium concentrations occur in calcite-rich matrix of sandstone and conglomeratebeds. Authigenic pyrite and siderite formed during diagenesis. Uranium in solution was first adsorbedby clays and carbonaceous matrix and further reduced by mobile H2S.A large amount of uranium, concentrated to ore grades in the reduced sandstones and conglomerates, was dissolved by carbonate-rich solutions ascending along the graben margin growth fault and redistributed throughout the fluviatile sediments. A few occurrences of uranium survived the severealteration represented mainly by calcite and hematite. All the occurrences are epigenetic in originformed by groundwater solution that moved through the host rock. The massive gneisses are believed tohave been the only source of uranium.

  • sandstone

  • conglomerate

  • uranium

  • alteration

  • Alaşehir

  • Adams, S.A., Curtis, H.S., Hafen, P.L. ve Salek-Nejad, H., 1978, Interpretation of postdepositionaî processes related to the formation of and destruction of the Jeckpile-Paguate uranium deDosit. Northwest New Mexico: Econ. GeoL, 73, 1635-1654

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  • Brookins, D.G., 1975, Comments on the coffinite-uraninite relationship, probable clay mineral reactions and formations: New Mexico GeoL Soc, 5, 158466.

  • Chauvel, J., 1973 Facies types and depositional environment of the Sokoman Iron formation, Central Labrador Trough Canada: Jour. Sed. Petrol., 44, 299-327.

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  • Folk, R.L., 1974, Petrology of Sedimentary rocks: Hemphill`s, Austin, Texas, 170 p.

  • Garrels, R.M. ve Christ, C.L., 1965, Solutions, minerals and equilibria: Harper and Row, New York.

  • Granger, H.C. ve Warren, C.G., 1969, Unstable sulfur compounds and origin of roll-type uranium deposits: Econ. GeoL, 64, 161-182.

  • Kaplan, H., 1974, Le gite d`uranium de Fakılı, Turquie, et sa formation: IAEA-SM. 183, 453-465.

  • Kashirtseva, M.F., 1968, Effect of material composition of rocks on formation of epigenetic uranium concentrations: Inter. GeoL Reviews, 11,530-538.

  • Langmuir, D., 1978, Uranium solution-mineral equilibria at low temperatures with applications to sedimentary ore deposits: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 42, 547-569.

  • Lukacs, E. ve Florjancic, A.P., 1974, Uranium ore deposits in Permian sediments of Northwest Yugoslavia: IAEA-SM. 183, 313-329.

  • Melin, R.E., 1969, Uranium deposits in Shirley Basin, Wyoming: Contribution to GeoL, 8, 143-151.

  • Richardson, K.A. ve Rogers, J.J.W., 1964, Thorium and uranium contents of some sandstones: Geochim. Cosmochim Acta, 28, 2005-2015.

  • Taylor, D., 1966, The application of trace element data to problems in Geology: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 3, 299-349.

  • Uçakçı, S., 1976, Köprübaşı bölgesi uranyum yatakları: Mad. Tetk. Ar. Enst, Derleme, 73 s.

  • Yılmaz, H., 1981, Genesis of uranium deposits in Neogene sedimentary rocks overlying Menderes metamorphic massif, Turkey: Chem. GeoL, 31, 185-210.

  • Finite Element Model for the Erzin Plain (Hatay) Groundwater Basin
    Nurkan Karahanoğlu Vedat Doyuran Fongs Award Su Vagonda
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    Abstract: In this paper a finite element model is presented for the unconfined aquifer of the Erzinplain. In the model governing groundwater flow aquations are modified by introducing Dupuit assumptions for the non-steady state unconfined aquifer condition.Application of the model to the Erzin plain groundwater basin is accomplished by calibrationof the model for the irrigation season of 1978 and verification for the period 1978-1982. Sensitivityanalyses are conducted for aquifer parameters, mesh size, boundary conditions and recharge - dischargerates.Simulation of the response of the aquifer to chan ging hydrological conditions is accomplished bymeans of five control wells for which long term head distribution data are available. The resultsobtained have shown a very good correlation between the measured and the computed heads. 

  • groundwater

  • aquifer

  • Erzin plain

  • Hatay

  • Aral, M.M., 1974, Finite element solution of selected partial diferential equations. FEMAC compu ter program : METU Publication No. 28, Ankara, 99 p.

  • Doyuran, V., 1982, Erzin ve Dörtyol ovalarının jeolojik ve hidrojeolojik özellikleri: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 25, 151-160.

  • Doyuran, V., 1983a, Erzin ve Dörtyol ovalarında yeraltısu düzeyi değişmelerinin yorumu : Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 26, 49-58.

  • Doyuran, V., 1983b, Yeraltısu düzeyi değişmelerinin istatistiksel mosel ile benzeşimi: Mühendislik Jeolojisi Türk Millî Komitesi Bülteni, 5, 5,5-8.

  • Doyuran, V., Suvagondha, F., Karahanoğlu, N., 1986, Sonlu elemanlar modelinin Erzin ovası (Hatay) serbest akiferine uygulaması: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 29/1, 61-72.

  • Mercer, J.W., ve Faust, C.R., 1980, Ground-Water modeling: Numerical Models, Ground water, 18, 4, 395-409.

  • Suvagondha, F., 1985, Finite element modelling of the Erzin plain ground-water basin, Hatay, Turkey: METU, Engineering Faculty, Geological Engineering Department, Ankara, PhD. Thesis, (unpublished) 104 p.

  • Wang, H.F., ve Anderson, M.P., 1982, Introduction to groundwater modeling techniques: W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 237 s.

  • Zienkiewicz, O.C., 1977, The finite element method: McGraw Hill, Berkshire, 787 s.

  • Application of a Finite Element Model to the Unconfined Aquifer of the Erzin Plain (Hatay)
    Vedat Doyuran Fongsaward Suvagqndha Nurkan Karahanoğlu
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    Abstract: In this paper application of a finite element model to the unconfined aquifer of the Erzin plain is discussed and the algoritm of the com puter program known as GRWM is described. Thesensitivity analyses include the mesh size, hydraulic conductivity, storage coefficient, boundary conditions, and recharge-discharge rates. Model calibration is achieved for the irrigation season of 1978. Verification of the model is accomplished for the period 1978 thru 1982. The proposed model simulates the behaviour of the aquifer successfully. 

  • Aquifer

  • Erzin

  • sensitivity analyses

  • Hatay

  • Aral, M.M., 1974, Finite element solution of selected partial differential equations. FEMAC computer program: METU Publication, No. 28, Ankara, 99 p.

  • Doyuran, V., 1982, Erzin ve Dörtyol ovalarının jeolojik ve hidrojeolojik özellikleri: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 25, 151-160.

  • Doyuran, V., 1983, Erzin ve Dörtyol ovalarında yeraltısu düzeyi değişmelerinin yorumu: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 26, 49-58.

  • Rushton, K.R. ve Redshaw, S.C., 1979, Seepage and Groundwater Flow: John Wiley and Sons, New York, 339 p.

  • Suvagondha, F., 1985, Finite element modelling of the Erzin plain groundwater basin, Hatay, Turkey: METU, Engineering Faculty, Geological Engineering Department, Ankara, PhD Thesis, (unpublished) 104 p.

  • Türkmen, G., Ertürk, A. ve Türkmen, M., 1974, Dörtyol-Erzin ovası hidrojeolojik etüd raporu: DSİ, 42 s.

  • Walton, W.C., 1970, Groundwater resource evaluation: Me Graw Hill, Kogakusha, 664 p.

  • Zienkiewicz, O.C., 1977, The finite element method: Me Graw Hill, Berkshire, 787 p.

  • An Example to Quantitative Determination of Species in Paleontology: An Application in the Icriodus Lineages of the Lower Devonian
    Mustafa Kemal Cebecioğlu Michael A. Murphy
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    Abstract: Through the application of some statistical analyses to the abundant Icriodus specimens,Lower Devonian conodonts, collected from the Monitor and Toquima ranges, Central Nevada, U.S.A.,the evolutionary change in this fossil group is investigated. Under the light of ontogenetic concepts andobservations, the statistical frequency distributions of «elongation index» in the populations, which ismodified from width-length ratio as I-W/L, are evaluated mathematically. By the interpretations concerning evolution and taxonomy, the two species. I. steinachensis and I. claudiae are redescribed andthe hypodigms of the two are given. Mathematical methods, graphs, and interpretations are explainedin detail. 

  • conodont

  • mıcrofossil

  • elongation index

  • paleontology

  • Al-Rawi, D., 1977, Biostratigraphische Gliederung der Tentaculiten-Schichtendes Frankenvaldes mit Conodonten und Tentaculiten (Unter-und Mittel-Devon: Bayern, Deutschland): Senckenbergiana Lethaea, 58, 25-79.

  • Burma, B.H., 1948, Studies in quantitative paleontology: I. some aspects of the theory and practice of quantitative invertebrate paleontology: Jour. Paleontology, 22, 725-761.

  • Johnson, D.B. ve Klapper, G., 1981, New Early Devonian conodont species of central Nevada: Jour. Paleontology, 55, 1237-1250.

  • Klapper, G. ve Johnson, `.G., 1980, Endemism and dispersal of Devonian conodonts: Jour. Paleontology, 54, 400-455.

  • Murphy, M.A. ve Berry, W.B.N., 1983, Early Devonian conodontgraptolite collation and correlations with brachiopod and coral zones, central Nevada: Am, Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., 67, 371-379.

  • Murphpy, M.A. ve Cebecioğlu, M.K., 1984, The Icriodus steinachensis and I. claudiae lineages (Devonian conodonts): Journ. Paleontology, 58, 1399-1411.

  • Murphy, M.A. ve Matti, J.C., 1983, Lower Devonian conodonts (hesperius-kindlei Zones), central Nevada: Univ. California Publications in Geol. Sciences, 123, 87 p.

  • Shaw, A.B., 1964, Time in stratigraphy: McGraw Hill, New York, 365 p.

  • Simpson, G.G., 1961, Principals of Animal Taxonomy: Columbia University Press, New York, 247 p.

  • Van Eysinga, F.W.B., 1975, Geological Time Table, 3rd ed: Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam.

  • Facies and Environmental Aspects of the Kuzgun Formation (Upper Miocene) in Adana Basin
    Cengiz Yetiş Cavit Demirkol İlyas Erdal Kerey
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    Abstract: The outcrops of the Kuzgun formation which is of Tortonian age according to the previousstudies have a northeast to southwest elongation in the investigated area. The Kuzgun formation mainlyconsists of alternating conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone and shallow marine Ostrea horizons. Thethickness of this unit increases from west to east and maximum measured thickness amounts to 450meters. Serial sections for determining the facies distribution of the Kuzgun formation which comprises generally terrestrial and shallow marine elastics were measured from east to west. According tothe measurements the following main facies were determined: The Güvenç formation is overlain byshallow marine elastics which contain Ostrea and low sinuosity meandering river-meandering river deposits in the east (Kebenk sırtı) in order. Meandering river deposits are dominant along the Seyhan rivernear Catalan dam and southerly Deve Tepe area. The Güvenç formation is overlain by meanderingriver deposits and shallow marine elastics around the Kuzgun village in the west. Further west nearKızılyar Tepe the Güvenç formation is overlain by in the order; 1. shallow marine elastics, 1. meanderingriver deposits, 2. shallow marine elastics, 2. meandering river deposits, 3. shallow marine elastics. Atthe northern part of Tarsus and west of E 5 highway (Eskiköy Tepe) the Paleozoic basement is overlainby a thin conglomerate without Serravallian and pre-Serravallian deposits and it continous to the top byshallow marine alternating elastics and detrital carbonates. The Kuzgun formation is overlain conformably by the Salbaş tuff member which is continuous in a regional scale.The Kuzgun formation mainly consists of alluvial and braided river deposits of cyclic-alternating nature and shallow marine deposits. In the terrestrial deposits, conglomerate and pebbly sandstone arefound at the base of each cycle as channel fill deposits. The levee deposits forming from alternatingsandstone and mudstone are located near the main channels. The sub facies of flood plains comprisesfine grained, fairly laminated mudstones which contain abundant calcrite noduls. The shallow marinefacies of the Kuzgun formation mainly consists of sandstone, siltstone, mudstone and several Ostrealevels. The lower boundaries of sets are usually sharp and the upper level of sets have wave ripples,burrows and are bioturbated. The siltstone and mud stone of this succession contain abundant bivalves,gastropods and plant fragments and Ostrea layers.

  • Ostrea

  • sandstone

  • siltstone

  • mudstone

  • Adana

  • Allen, J.R.L., 1964, Studies in fluviatile sedimentation: six cyclothems from the Lower Old Red Sandstones, Anglo-Welsh Basin: Sedimentology, 3,163-198.

  • Allen, J.R.L., 1965a, Fining upwards cycles in alluvial successions: Geol. J., 4, 229-246.

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  • Allen, J.R.L., 1970, Studies in fluviatile sedimentation: A comprasion of fining upward cyclothems with special reference to coarce member composition and interpretation: Jour. Sed. Petrology, 40, 298-323.

  • Allen, J.R.L., 1974, Studies in fluviatile sedimentation: Implication of pedogenic carbonate units, Lower Old Red Sandstone, Anglo - Welsh outcrop: Geol. J., 9, 181-208.

  • Allen, J.R.L. ve Williams, B.P.J., 1979, Interfluvial drainage on Siluro-Devonian alluvial plains in Wales and the Welsh Borders: Geol, Soc, 136, 361-366.

  • Allen, P.A., 1981, Devonian lake margin environments and processes SE Shetland, Scotland: Jour. Geol. Soc, 138, 1-14.

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  • Cant, D.J., ve Walker, R.G., 1976, Development of a braided-fluvial facies model for the Devonian Battery Point Sandstone, Qubec: Can. Jornal Earth Sci., 13, 102-119.

  • Coleman, J.M., 1969, Brahmaputra River: Channel processes and sedimentation: Sedim. GeoL, 3, 129-239.

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  • Collinson, J.D., 1970, Bedforms of the Tana River: Norway Geogr., 52 A, 31-56

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  • Elliot, T., 1974a, Abundonment facies of high-constructive lobate deltas with an examle from the Yoredale Series: Proc. Geol. Ass. 85(3), 359-365.

  • Elliot, T., 1974b, Interdistributary bay sequences and their genessis: Sedimentology, 21, 611-622.

  • Elliot, T., 1976, Upper Carboniferous sedimentary cycles produced by river-dominated, elongate deltas: Jour. Geol. Soc, 132, 199-208.

  • Erxleben, A.W., 1975, Deltaic and related carbonate systems in the Pennsylvanian Canyon Group of North-Central Texas; Broussard, M.L., Ed., deltas models for exploration: Houston Geol. Soc, 399425.

  • Fisher, W.L., Brown, L.F., Scott, A.J., ve Gowen Me, J.H., 1969, Delta systems in the exploration for oil and gas: Bull. Econ. Geol., Univ. Texas, Austin, 78p.

  • Howard, A.P., 1981, A review ow wave-dominated clastic shoreline deposits: Earth -sciences reviews, 17, 223-276.

  • Howard, J.D. ve Reinech, H.E., 1972, Conclusion, Senckenberg Mar., 4, special Issue on Georgia coastal region, Sapelo Island, USA: Sedimentology and Biology, 217-223.

  • îlker, S., 1975, Adana baseni kuzeybatısının jeolojisi ve petrol olanakları: T.P.A.O. Arama Arşiv No: 973 (yayınlanmamış), Ankara, 63 s.

  • Jackson, R.G., 1976, Depositional model of point bars in the Lower Wabash River: Jour. Sed. Petrology, 46, 579-594.

  • Kelling, G. ve George, G.T., 1971, Upper Carboniferous sedimentation in the Pembrokshire coalfield; Basset, D.A., Ed., Geological excursions in South Wales and the Forest of Dean: 240-259

  • Kerey, Î.E., 1978, Sedimentology of the Chatsworth Grit Sandstone in the Goyt-Chapel en le Frith area: Unpublished MSc Thesis, 132 p.

  • Kerey, I.E., Yetiş, C, ve Demirkol, C, 1985, Meandering plain deposits and marginal sea processes in the Upper Miocene Kuzgun formation of sedimentology, Abstracts, Spain, 217-218.

  • Laury, R.L., 1971, Stream bank failure and rotational slumping: Preservation and significance in geological record: Bui. Geol. Soc. Am., 82, 1251-1266.

  • Moody-Stuart, M., 1966, High and low sinuosity stream deposits with example from the Devonian of Spitzberg: Jour. Sed. Petrology, 36, 1102-1117.

  • Roaf, J.F.M. ve Boersma, J.R., 1971, Tidal deposits and their sedimentary structures: Geologic Mijnb., 50, 479-504.

  • Reineck, H.E., 1967, Layered sediments of tidal flats, beaches and shelf bottoms of the North Sea; Louft, G.D., Ed., Estharies, 191-206.

  • Schmidt, G.C., 1961, Stratigraphic nomenculature for the Adana region petroleum district VII: Petroleum Administration Bull. 6, 47-63.

  • Smith, N.D., 1970, The braided stream depositional enviroment: Comparison of the Platte River with some Silurian clastic rocks, North - Central Appalachians: Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 81, 2993-3014.

  • Steward, D.J., 1981, A meander-belt sandstone of the Lower Cretaceous of Southern England: Sedimentology, 28, 1-20.

  • Van Andel, Tj. H. ve Currray, J.R., 1960, Regional aspects of modern sedimentation in the northern Gulf öf Mexico and similar basins, and paleogeographic significance in recent sediments, northwest Gulf of Mexico: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologist Bull., 345-364.

  • Williams, P.P. ve Rust, B.R., 1969, The sedimentology of a braided river: Jour. Sed. Petrology, 39, 649-679.

  • Wilson, J.L., 1975, A review of wave-dominated clastic shoreline deposits: Earth -Sciences Reviews, 17, 223-276.

  • Yalçın, M.N. ve Görür, N., 1984, Sedimentological evolution of the Adana basin: International symposium on the Geology of the Taurus Belt, Ankara, 165-172.

  • Yetiş, C. ve Demirkol, C, 1984, Adana baseni kuzey -kuzeybatı kesiminin temel stratigrafisine ilişkin bazı gözlemler: Türkiye Jeol. Kur., 38. Bilimsel ve Teknik Kurultayı Bildiri Özetleri, Ankara, 59-61.

  • An Investigation with Organic Geochemical and Clay Minerals of Two Source Rocks in Gelibolu Peninsula
    Mehmet Önal
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    Abstract: Early Eocene and Middle-Late Eocene flysch like fine grained sedimentary rocks in Gelibolu Peninsula were studied for their source rock possibility. Both facies consist of sand, mud, clayand normal flysch within different horizons. Fine grained rocks (claystone and mudstone) comprize% 80 of the total thickness of the sedimentary rocks. Organic geohemical parameters and clay mineralsparagenesis of the claystone and mudstone obtained from the measured stratigraphic section were investigated. According to the total organic carbon (TOC) and extractable organic material (EOM) dataSaz member may probably be considered as a source rocks however Karaağaç member may not bethe source rock. According to the vitrinite reflectance (Rm) data Saz Member rang young state andKaraağaç Member rang mature state. Oil and gas with low to awerage quality may be produced fromthem. According to the illite kristalinite index data Saz Member rank anchimetamorphism and metamorphism and Karaağaç Member is in the diagenetic stage.The clay minerals in the Saz and Karaağaç Members and their polimorphes indicated that those sediments may have been subjected to diagenesis at deepths between 30004700 meters.

  • flysch

  • clay

  • metamorphism

  • Gelibolu

  • BOUMA, A.H., 1962, Sedimentology of some flysch deposists. A Grophic Approach to fades interpretation : Elsevier, Amsterdam, 168 p.

  • DRUITT, G.E., 1961, Raport on the petroleum prospeets of Trace: Turkey Turkish Golf Oil Camp., Ankara.

  • DUNOYER de SEGONZAC, G., 1969, Les mineraux argileux dansla diagenese passage metamorphisme : Memoire du Service dela Carte GeoL, Alsace et de Lorraine, 29, 320 p.

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  • FOSCOLOS, A. ve KODAMA, K., 1974, Diagenesis of clay pace clays: Amer. Mineral., 51, 1057- 1067.

  • HOLMES, A.W., 1961, A stratigraphic review of Trace: T.P.A.O., Rap No. 368.

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  • KELLOG, B.H., 1973, Geology and petroleum prospets gulf of Saros and vicinity sousthwestern Trace: Ashland oil of Turkey, T.P.A.O., Rap. No. 302.

  • LEVORSEN, A.I., 1967, Geology of petroleum : W.H. Freeman and company, San Francisco.

  • MAXWELL, D. ve HOWER, J., 1967, High grade diagenesis and low grade metamorphism of illite in the Precambrian belt series : Amer. Mineral., 52, 843-857.

  • MOORT, J.W., 1971, A computerative study of diagenetic alteration of clay minerals in Mesozoic shales from Papua, New Guinea and in Tertiary Shales from Lausina U.S.A. Clays clay minerals, 19, 1-20.

  • N.V. TURKSE SHELL, 1969, nolu petrol bölgesinde AR NTS 832, 833, 835, 836, 997, 998 sıra nolu arama sahalarına ait terk raporu : T.P.A.O., Rapor No. 39.

  • ÖNAL, M. ve YILMA7, H., 1983, Gelibolu yarımadasındaki iki farklı fliş fasiyesindeki kil mineral leri ve gömülme derinliğine ait bazı ipuçları: Jeo. Müh. Der., s. 18, 23-30.

  • ÖNAL, M., 1984, Gelibolu (Çanakkale) kuzeybatısının jeolojisi (Yayınlanmamış doktora tezi), 200 s.

  • ÖNEM, Y., 1974, Gelibolu yarımadası ve Çanakkale dolayının jeolojisi: T.P.A.O., Rap. No. 877.

  • PERRY, E.A.J., ve HOWER, L, 1972, Late state dehydration in deeply buried pelitic sediment: A. A.P.G. Bull., Sb., 2013-2021.

  • PHILIPPI, G.T., 1965, On the depth, time and mechanism of petroleum generation : Geochimica e t Cesmachimica acta, 29-9,1021-1049.

  • RONOV, AJB., 1958, Organic carbon in sedimentary rocks: Geochemistry, 5, 496-509.

  • SALTIK, O., 1972, l`nci Bölge Trakya sahalarında ölçülen kesitlere ait rapor: T.P.A.O., Rap. No. 803.

  • SANER, S., 1980, Saros Körfezi ve dolayının petrol olanakları: T.P.A.O. Arama Grubu Başkanlığı, Rap. No. 1500

  • SFONDRINI, C, 1961, Surface geological report on AR/TGO/I/S37, 538 Eceabat and Çanakkale areas : Turkish Gulf Oil Comp.

  • SKOLOV, V.A., 1969, Tortul kayaların ana kaya potansiyelinin değerlendirilmesi in : G. Eserler, Türkiye Üçüncü Petrol Kongresi, 76 s.

  • TISSOT, B. ve diğ., 1971, Criteres d`origine et d`evolution des petroles. Application a Fe`tude geohimique des bassins sedimentaires in: Org. Geochem, 113-134.

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  • URBAN, J.B., 1976, Palynology thermal maturation by vitrinite reflectance and visual color estimation and kerogen description of source rock: Core Lab. Inc. Special Publ.

  • ÜNAL, O.T., 1967, Trakya Jeolojisi ve petrol imkânları : T.P.A.O. Rap. No. 391.

  • WEAVER, C, 1960, Possible use of clay minerals in the search of oil: A.A.P.G. Bull., 44, 1505- 1516.

  • Expansion of the Production Area for the Lead - Zinç Deposit by Using Geophysical Method at Afşin Elbistan
    Ahmet Ercan
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    Abstract: The Pb+Zn mine, in Afşin-Hüyüklü is already under the production. In order to direct thefuture explotation, geoelectrical surveys were conducted to determine extensional existance, dimensionand possible reserve of the are deposit. To accomplish that d.c. geoelectrical and natural polarizationmeasurements were taken over an andesite covered 45 000 m2 large area and along the profiles each ofwhich has 300 meter length and with sampling interval of 5 meters. Three conductive depositional basinswere located to be extending in E-W direction. Medium basin is already proven and is underproduction.This basin is recognized with lower average resistivity of 200 Ohm-meters, and it is surrounded withrelatively resistive flanks that of which is 450 Ohm - meters. The estimated widh of the basin is 120 to150 meters. There are two, four-and one conductive minearl zones in these basins from north to south,respectively. There zones extends in N60°E direction, and inclines to the north with an angle between 45 to60° and have various withd of 10 to 40 meters and resis tivities in the range of 100-150 Ohm - meters. The oreveins, underproduction take place in one of these zones. From the interpretation of the natural polarization profiles, it is determined that average depth of the mineralization starts from 10-15 meters andextends up to 100 meters below the surface. By using the interpretation results new locations for production galleries were recommended and possible expected reserve was estimated which is about 320 000tons, in the medium basin. 

  • andesite

  • lead

  • zinc

  • Afşin

  • Bhattacharya, B.B., and Roy, N., 1981, A note on the use of a nomogram for selfpotential anomalies. Geophy. Prosp. v. 29, n. 1, 102-107.

  • Ercan, A., 1982-a, Doğal Uçlaşma Yöntemi; ÎTÜ Maden Fakültesi Jeofizik Müh. Yay. 230 Sayfa.

  • Ercan, A., 1982-b, Yayap Doğru Akım Özdirenç Yöntemlerinde Süreksizlikler üzerinde Kaydırma Ölçümleri: Betik II, ÎTÜ Maden Fakültesi Jeofizik Müh. Yayınları 250 sayfa

  • Ercan, A., 1982-c, Kayaçlarm Elektrik Özelliği ve Yatay Katmanlı Yapı Üzerinde Yerelektrik Açma Ölçümleri; İTÜ Maden Fakültesi Yayınları, 210 sayfa.

  • Ercan, A., ve Gürkan, V., 1984. Gürlek Dere AltınÇinko Kurşun yatağının jeofizik yöntemle aranması 80 sayfa (yayınlanmamış rapor)

  • Erdoğan, B., 1982, Ergani - Maden Yöresindeki Güneydoğu Anadolu Ofiyolit Kuşağının Jeolojisi ve Volkanik Kayaları. TJK Bült., 25, 49-59.

  • Hal, R. and Mason, R., 1972, A tectonic melarige from the Eastern Taurus Mountains: Geol. Soc. London, 128, 395-397.

  • Keller, G.V. and Frischnknecht, F.C., 1966, Eletrical Methods in Geophysical Prospecting; Pergamon Press, New York, 517 s.

  • Öztunalı, Ö., 1967, Maden Yatakları, l.Ü. Fen FaküL tesi Ders Notları (230 sayfa). Vezneciler/îstanbul

  • Rıcou, Luc Emmanuel, 1980, Toroslarm Helenidler ve Zagridler Arasındaki Yapısal Rolü. TJK Bült., 23, 101-118

  • Schmuacher, Fi., 1963, Maden Yatakları Bilgisinin Esasları; İTÜ Kütüphanesi, s. 532, 278 s. (E. Göksu, çeviri).

  • Şaroğlu, F. ve Güner, Y., 1981, Doğu Anadolu`nun Jeomorfolojik gelişimine etki eden öğeler: Jeomorfoloji, tektonik volkanizma ilişkileri. TJK Bült.. 24 39-50

  • Temple, P. and Perry, D.J., 1962, Geology and oil occurrence, south-east Turkey: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., 46, 1596-1612.

  • Petrology and the Genetic Implications of Erdembaba Volcanics of Pliocene Age in the Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey.
    Mehmet Nuri Terzioğlu
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    Abstract: Petrclogical analyses of the Erdembaba volcanics in tha Central Pontides region are investigated and the mode of formation and genesis are interpreted. Pliocene volcanism is hyalodacitic showing characters of intermediate acidic rocks of the calcalkaline series. Petrochemical characteristics ofthe Erdembaba volcanics point out that they might have been originated from continental crust as aresult of anatexis.

  • volcanic

  • Petrochemical

  • hyalodacitic

  • Eastern Black Sea

  • Allegre, C.J., Montigay, R., ve Bottinga, Y, 1973, Cortege ophiolitique et cortege ocSanique, geochimie comparee et mode de genese: Bull. Soc. geol. Fr., XV, 5-6, 461477.

  • Atak, H.D, 1960, Reşadiye Bölgesi Genel Prospeksiyon Çalışmaları nihai raporu: M.T.A. Ens t., Ankara, (Yayınlanmamış).

  • Baş, H, 1979, Petrologiache und geochemische Untersuchungen an- subrezenten Volkaniten der nordanatolischen Strörungszone (Abschnitt: Erzincan - Niksar), Türkei: Diss. Univ. Hamburg, 116 s.

  • Blumenthal, M.M., 1945, Die Kelkit - Dislokation und ihre tektonische Rolle: M.T.A. Enst. Dergisi, 2-34, 372-386.

  • Borsi, S., Ferrara, G., Innocenti, F., ve Mazzuoli, R., 1972, Geochronology and Petrology of recent volcanics of Eastern Aegean Sea: Bulletin volcanologique, 36-1, 473-496.

  • El-Hmnawi, E.E., Pichler, H, ve Zeil, W., 1969, Trace element distribution in Chilean ignimbrites: Contr. Min. Petr., 24, 50-62.

  • Erentöz, C, 1950, Türkiye Jeoloji Haritası 1 : 100.000 ölçekli Reşadiye 44-2 paftası: M.T.A. Enst., Ankara, (Yayınlanmamış).

  • Ercan, T., 1983, Gördes (Manisa) volkanitlerinin petrolojisi ve kökensel yorumu: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült. 26,4148.

  • Gedikoğlu, A., 1970, Etude geologique de la region de Gölköy (Province D` Ordu - Turquie) : These de doctorat, Grenoble (Yayınlanmamış).

  • Gottini, V., 1968, The TiO2 frequency in volcanic rocks: Geol. Rundsch., 57,920-935.

  • Göksu, E., 1960, 1 : 500.000 ölçekli Türkiye Jeoloji Haritası, Samsun paftası açıklaması: M.T.A. Enst., Ankara.

  • Green, D.H., and Ringwood, A.E., 1967, The genesis of basaltic magmas: Contr. Min. Petr., 15, 103490.

  • Hyndman, D.W., 1972, Petrology of igneous and metamorphic rocks: McGraw Hill, Edit, New York. 530 s.

  • Irvine, T.N., ve Baragar W., 1971, A guide to the chemical classification of the common volcanic rocks: Can. J. Earth Sci., 8, 523-548.

  • Jakes, P., ve White, A.J.R., 1971, Composition of Island arcs continontal growth: Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 12, 224-230.

  • Joron, J.L., Bougault, H, Treuil, M, ve Allegre C.J., 1976, Etude geochimique des roches magmatiques de la zone FAMOUS et de V archipel des Açores: Bull. Soc. Geol. France., t. XVIII, No: 4, 811-818.

  • Jung, J., 1969, Precis de petrographie: Manşon, Paris, 332 p.

  • Keller, J., 1969, Origin of rhyolites by anatectic melting of granitic crustal rocks: Bull. Volcanologique, 33/3, 942-959.

  • Keller, J., ve Villari, 1972, Rhyolitic ignimbrite in the region of Afyon (Central Anatolia): Bull. Volcanologique, 36, 342-358.

  • Kuno, H., 1950, Petrology of Hakone volcano and the adjacent area, Japan: Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull, 61, 9574020.

  • Kuno, H., 1968, Differantiation of basalt magmas: In Hess, H.H., and Poldervaart, A. (edit), 1968, Basalts, 2 (Interscience, New York), 623-688.

  • Kuno, H., 1970, Systems bearing on melting of the upper mantle under hydrous conditions: Geol. Surv. Pap. Can, 66 (15), 317-336.

  • MacDonald, G.A., ve Katsura, T, 1964, Chemical composition of Hawaiian Lavas: J. Petrology, 5, 82-133.

  • Miyashiro, A, 1975, Volcanic rock series and tectonic setting. In Donath, F.A., Stehli, F.G., (edit), 1975: Annual review of earth and planetary, 3, 251-269.

  • Seymen, I, 1975, Kelkit vadisi kesiminde Kuzey Anadolu Fay Zonunun tektonik Özelliği: t.T.Ü. Maden Fakültesi, İstanbul, 192 s.

  • Streckeisen, A, 1976, To each plutonic rocks its proper name: Earth Sci. Rev, 12,1-33.

  • Streckeisen, A, 1979, Classification and nomenclature of volcanic rocks, Lamprophyres, Carbonatites and Melilitic rocks (Recommendations and suggestions of the I.U.G.S. Subrommission of Igneous Rocks): Geology, 7, 331-335.

  • Sunder, M, 1979, Kırka (Eskişehir) ve çevresinin jeolojisi, petrolojisi ve Sarıkaya Bor Yataklarının jeokimyasal incelenmesi: Doktora Tezî, istanbul Üniv. Fen Fakültesi, (Yayınlanmamış).

  • Taylor, S. R, 1969, Trace element chemistry of Andesites and associated calcalcaline rocks. Proceedings of the Andesite Conference: Oregon Dept. Geol. Mineral. Ind. Bull, 65, 43- 63.

  • Taylor, S.R., ve McLennan S.M., 1979, In discussion on «Chemistry» thermal gradients and evolution of the lower continental crust` by Tarney, J, and Windley, B.F.J.: Geol. Soc. London, 497-500.

  • Taylor, S.R, ve White, AJ.R, 1969. Trace element abundances in Andesites. Bull. Volcanol, 29, 172-194.

  • Tchihatcheff, P. de, 1869, Asie Mineure: Geologie II. Paris.

  • Terlemez, I. ve Yılmaz, A., 1980, Ünye - Ordu - Koyulhisar - Reşadiye arasında kalan yörenin stratigrafisi: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bull., 23 (2), 179 -191.

  • Terzioğlu, M. N., 1983, Reşadiye - Aybastı - Gölköy - Mesudiye - Koyulhisar ilçeleri arasındaki sahada yer alan Eosen volkanitlerinin petrolojik - petrokimyasal özeliklerinin incelenmesi : Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknik Araştırma Kurumu, Temel Bilimler Araştırma Grubu, Proje No: TBAG-137 (Yayınlanmamış).

  • Terzioğlu, M. N., 1985, Mesudiye (Ordu) batısındaki Üst Miyosen yaşlı Kuyucak bazaltının petrolojisi ve kökensel yorumu: Yerbilimleri, 12, (Baskıda).

  • Thornton, C.P., ve Tuttle, O.F., 1960, Chemistry of igneous rocks I. Differentiation Index: Am. Jour. ScL, 258, 664-684

  • Torun, A. F., Yılmaz, O ve Batum, I., 1978, Petrokimyasal işlem programı: Hacettepe Üniversitesi Bilgi İşlem Merkezi, Ankara

  • Treuil, M., ve Varet, `., 1973, Criteres Volcanologiques, petrologiques, et geochimiques de la genese et de la differenciation des magmas basalti ques. example de T Afar: Bull. Soc. Geol. Fr. XV, 5,6, 506-540.

  • Turner, F. J., ve Verhoogen, J.Tl960, Igneous and me tamorphic Petrology. 2 nd editions, McGraw - Hill, New York, 694 s.

  • Tuttle, O.F. ve Bowen, N.L., 1958, Origin of granit* in the light of experimenthal studies in the system NAISi3O8 — SiO2 — KAISi3O8 — K2O : Geol. Soc. Amer. Memoir, 74, 153 s

  • Wager, L. R., 1960, The major element variation oi the Layered series of the Skaergaard intru sion: J. Petrology., 1,364-398.

  • Winchester, J. A., ve Floyd, P. A., 1977, Geochemica discrimination of diferent magma series anc their differentiation products using immobi le elements: Chem. Geol., 20, 325-343.

  • Winkler, H. G. F., 1974, Petrogenesis of metamorphic rocks : Springer - Verlag, New York, 344 s.

  • Geologic and Petrographic Investigation of Mıhlıdere Valley (Kazdağ, Northwestern Turkey)
    Muhittin Ziya Gözler
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    Abstract: Palingenetic granites constitute the basement rocks of Mihhdere valley located to thewest of Kazdağ Massif, Turkey. The rock sequence consists, from base upwards, of foliated granite, migmatite, gneiss and marbles which are unconformably overlain by various schists and marbles. Different lithofacies of this sequence are overlain by a tectonic slice of melange and flysch. All these rocksare intruded by the Altınoluk Granite of Paleocene age generally forming skarn zones. Sedimentaryand volcanic rocks of Miocene age unconformably cover the older units.Paleozoic or pre-Paleozoic events probably played an important role on the structural evolutionof the massif. Upper Triassic was a period of overt hrusting and strike-slip faulting with associatednormal faults.Mineral parageneses point to a regional meta morphism of Barrowian type. Reported Abukumatype metamorphism is attributed to contact metamorphism. The metamorphic rocks display effects of aregional metamorphism of low, middle and high grades. 

  • marble

  • gneiss

  • skarn

  • Kazdağ

  • Aslaner, M., 1965, Etude geologique et petrographiguede la region d` Edremit-Havran: Maden Tetkik Arama Yayını, No: 119

  • Bingöl, E., 1968, Contribution a I` etude geologique de la partie centrale et Sud-est du masif de Kazdağ, Turquie: These, Fac. Sci. Univ. Nancy - Fransa, yayınlanmamış.

  • Bingöl, E., 1976, Batı Anadolunun Jeotektonik Evrimi: Maden Tetkik Arama Dergisi, 86, 14-34.

  • Geis, H., 1953, Kuzey Kazdağ`m Jeolojik yapısı: Maden Tetkik Arama, Rapor No: 2250, yayınlanmamış.

  • Gözler, M.Z., Ergül, E., Akçören, F., Genç, Ş., Akat., U., ve Acar, Ş., 1984, Çanakkale boğazı doğusu-Marmara Denizi güneyi- Bandırma, Balıkesir - Edremit ve Ege Denizi arasındaki alanın jeolojisi ve kompilasyonu: Maden Tetkik Arama, Rapor No: 7430, Yayınlanmamış.

  • Gümüş, A., 1964, Contribution a I` etude geologique du secteur septentrional de Kalabak Köy - Eymir (region d`Edremit), Turquie: Maden Tetkik Arama Yayım, No: 117.

  • Kaaden, G.V.d., 1957, Çanakkale- Biga-Edremit yarımadası bölgesindeki jeolojik saha çalışmaları ve maden yatakları hakkında rapor: Maden Tetkik Arama, Rapor No: 2661, yayınlanmamış.

  • Kocaefe, S., ve Ataman G., 1982, Batı Anadolunun aktüel tektoniği: Hacettepe Yerbilimleri, 9, 149 -162.

  • Marakusev, A.A., 1964, Analysis of scapolite paragenesis: Geoch. Intern., 1, 114-125.

  • Mehnert, K.R., 1968, Migmatites and the origin of granitic rocks: Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam.

  • Miyashiro, A., 1973, Metamorphism and metamorphic belts: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., London.

  • Ongen, S., 1982, Yenice (Çanakkale) yöresi granitoidlerinin ve yan kayaçlarımn petrolojisi: Doktora tezi, İ. Ü. Yer. Bil. Fak., yayınlanmamış.

  • Schuiling, R. D., 1959, Kazdağ kristaleninin arz ettiği Pre-Hersiniyen iltiva safhası hakkında: Maden Tetkik Arama Dergisi, 53, 87-91

  • Tuttle, O.F. ve Bowen, N. L., 1958 Origin of granite in the system Na Al Si3 O8—KALSi3 O8—Siö2 — H2O : Geol. Soc. Am., Mem. 74, 153 s.

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  • Yılmaz, Y., 1979, Granit magmasının yerleşme sorunu: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Yayını, 32 s.

  • Petrology and Geochemistry of the Sinop Volcanics
    Halil Baş
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    Abstract: Volcanic rocks of the Pontides are widespread in the Sinop area. The rocks are mainlymade up of volcanic conglomerates, flow-breccias, pillowlavas, dikes and also associated with them arelava flows and rarely tuffs.Volcanic rocks have basaltic and andesltic compo sition and consist mainly of augite, enstatite, olivine,biotite, plagioclase and analcime. Chlorite, zeolite, prehnite, calcite and opaque minerals are found assecondary minerals.Rocks showing generally calc-alkaline characteristics are divided in basalt, andesite, latite-basaltand latite-andesite. The general distribution of their trace element contents (Cr, Ti, Zr, Sr, Y) and highV/Ni, low Ti/V values exhibit the characteristics of volcanic arcs rocks.It is concluded that the Sinop volcanics and the other volcanics of Upper Cretaceous-Eocene age inthe Pontids were generated by the subduction of the descending Anatolian-Tethys (Neo-Tethys) plate beneath the Pontids during the Upper Cretaceous-Eocene time.

  • flow-breccias

  • dike

  • basalt

  • conglomera

  • pillowlavas

  • Sinop

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  • Taylor, S.R. ve White, A.J.R., 1966, Trace elemant abundances in andesites: Bull. Volcano!., 29, 172-194.

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  • Terzioğlu, O. N., 1984, Ordu güneyindeki Eosen yaşlı Bayırköy volkanitlerinin jeokimyası ve petrolojisi: C.Ü. Müh. Fak. Yerbil. Derg., 1, 43- 59.

  • Terzioğlu, S., 1972, Doğu Pontidlerin Mesozoik ve Tersiyerdeki gelişimleri, bu gelişimlerin Kuzey Anadolu sismik zonu ile muhtemel ilgileri: Cumhuriyetin 50. yılı Yerbilim. Kong. Teb., 1-4.

  • Thornton, C. P. ve Tuttle, O. F., 1960, Chemistry of igneous rocks, I. Differentitation Index: Am. Jour. Sci., 258, 664-684.

  • Tokel, S. 1977, Doğu Karadeniz bölgesinde Eosen yaşlı kalkalkali andezitler ve jeotektonizma: Türkiye Jeol. Kur. Bült., 20, 49-54

  • Tröger, W. E., 1969, Optishe Bestimmung der gesteinsbildenden Minerale, Teil 2, Textband: E. Schweizerbarfsche Verlagbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, 822 s.

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  • Yılmaz, O., 1980, Daday-devrekani masifi kuzeydoğu kesimi litostratigrafi birimleri ve tektoniği: H. Ü. Yerbil. Derg., 5-6, 101435.

  • Geology and Tectonic Evolution of the Altmekin (Konya) Region
    Mehmet Erkan Karaman
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    Abstract: The Altmekin group, which formed the basement of the investigated area, consists of Gözet,Karasivri, Nuras and Bademli formations which are conformable to each other. The dominant lithologiesof Gözet formation are calcschists and greenschists. Karasivri formation is mainly formed of quarzitesand it shows transitions to marbles of Nuras formation. Upper Permian-aged dolomitic limestones ofBademli formation form the upper levels of the Altmekin group. The Koçyaka ophiolitic melange wasemplaced before Upper Campanian and it has tectonic relations with the Altmekin group. Upper Campanian-Lower Maastrichtian aged Maydos formation unconformably overlies the ophiolitic melange. Upper Miocene aged Hoydos formation and Plio-Qua ternary aged alluvioums cover the above mentionedformations.In the region, tectonic activities affected the formations in varying intensities due to their differentlithologic features and formed different types of folds. Approximately E-W striking, faults, overthrusts, fold axes and joints in different directions have been formed by N - S striking structural forces. TheAltmekin group has been thrusted over the ophiolitic melange, after the melange had been emplaced inthe region. 

  • ophiolit

  • marble

  • alluvioum

  • calcschist

  • Konya

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