Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni
Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni

Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni

2019 OCAK Cilt 62 Sayı 1
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Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy, Microfacies Analysis and Depositional Environments of Upper Triassic Carbonates of Bitlis Massif, Palu (Elazığ)
Ayşe Atakul Özdemir
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Abstract: In this study, it is aimed to reveal the foraminiferal content and microfacies properties of the the UpperTriassic carbonates, cover units of the Bitlis massif exposed in the vicinity of the Çakmakkaya village (Palu, Elazığ).Stratigraphically significant foraminiferal species characterizing Triassic have been recorded throughout themeasured section. Triasina hantkeni, the most common taxa documented in the studied sequence, is considered as azonal marker for Late Triassic. Besides the zonal marker species, the section includes Aulotortus sinuosus, Aulotortusfriedli, Involutina sp., Galeanella? sp., Duostomina sp., Glomospira sp., Glomospirella sp., Duotaxis birmanica,Siphovalvulina sp., and Reophax sp. foraminiferal assemblages. On the basis of the determined foraminiferal taxa,Triasina hantkeni zone is defined within the studied succession and a late Norian-Rhaetian age is attributed. Inaddition to foraminiferal assemblages, megalodontids, algae, gastrapods and corals are also present within thelimestone units. Three facies types, mudstone, wackestone-packstone, pelloidal bioclastic packstone-grainstone,were described based on microfacies studies to determine the depositional environments of the Upper Triassiccarbonates exposed in the region. The described microfacies types suggest that the depositional environment was alagoon and shallow marine platform environments. 

  • Bitlis Massif

  • foraminifera

  • late Triassic

  • microfacies

  • Palu

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    Abstract: The Eastern Pontides, which is the under transpressional deformation zone, is an active mountain beltin northern Turkey that has been uplifting at a rate of more than 0.5 mm/year, along with push-up geometry. Thisuplift is accommodated by the dip/oblique slip normal fault segments of an en-echelon geometry mountain frontmapped here for the first time. According to our geological mapping studies, the Southeast Black Sea Fault zoneis about 65 km total long and more than 1 km wide and comprises nine fault segments. In the kinematic analysisconducted along the fault zone, fault planes have dip angles between 60o-90o to the north. The measured fault planeshave rake angles range from 32o to 90o. Our findings indicate that (i) the faulting observed in the mountain frontof the Eastern Pontides, the crustal thickness has increased due to thrust component strike-slip faults formed in acompressive regime where σ1 was horizontal at the initially, as a result of this, σ1 which is the horizontal positionwent in a vertical position, and lastly the former weakness zones were re-activated as normal faults, (ii) thisweakness is defined as an Southeast Black Sea Fault that produces earthquakes have resulted in surface rupture inthe Quaternary and therefore this fault should be considered in the class of "Quaternary Fault" in Turkey’s activefault maps.

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  • Softa, M , Emre, T , Sözbilir, H , Spencer, J , Turan, M . (2019). Kuvaterner Yaşlı Güneydoğu Karadeniz Fayı’nın Arazi Verileri ve Bunun Tektonik Önemi, Doğu Pontidler, Türkiye . Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni , 62 (1) , 17-40 . DOI: 10.25288/tjb.504050

  • Petrology of the Plio-Quaternary Göbekören Volcanics (Kangal-Sivas)
    Taner Ekici Sultan Taş
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    Abstract: The study area is located at 15 km W-SW of Kangal district of Sivas province. Lithological units are observedin the study area ranging from Late Miocene to Plio- Quaternary in age. The rock units start with Late MiocenePliocene Kangal Formation and Upper Pliocene Uzunyayla Formation conformably overlies this unite. UzunyaylaFormation is uncomfortably overlain by the Plio-Quaternary Göbekören volcanics and again uncomfortably overthe Quaternary alluvium.The Late Miocene-Pliocene Kangal Formation has a thickness of about 200 m in the study are and consists ofsandstone, mudstone and lignite bands in some places. Uzunyayla Formation forms of marl and lacustrine limestonewhich was placed in conformity to Kangal Formation. Above units, Late Pliocene Göbekören Volcanics with darkbrown-black colour, porous, air-bubbled, massive columnar and an approximate thickness of 10 m is composedmostly from basalt and less from trachybasalt.Göbekören volcanics characterizes alkaline as geochemically. Both geochemical analyses and mineralogicalobservations show that there are olivine and clinopyroxene fractionation from basalts to trachybasalt. As a result ofthe geochemical investigations, it was observed that Göbekören volcanics has more enriched light rare earth elementsthan heavy rare earth elements which suggest that the crustal material may be added during the crystallization in themagmatism. In addition, the amount of partial melts increases from trachybasalt to basalts.Göbekören volcanics which is located in Sivas Basin is continental plate basalts which is formed as a result oflithospheric thinning.

  • Göbekören Volcanics

  • Major and Trace Elements Geochemistry

  • Mineralogy and Petrography

  • Sivas

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  • Ekici, T , Taş, S . (2019). Pliyo-Kuvaterner Yaşlı Göbekören Volkaniklerinin Petrolojisi (Kangal-Sivas) . Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni , 62 (1) , 41-62 . DOI: 10.25288/tjb.504069

  • Stratigraphy of the Neogene Sedimentation and Volcanism in Çubukludağ Basin, Western Anatolia
    Fikret Göktaş
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    Abstract: The Lower-Middle Miocene fill of Çubukludağ basin, formed as an asimetric depression under thecontrol of strike-slip Tuzla Fault, comprises Çatalca, Bahçecik, Yeniköy and Tahtalı formations, all of which arestudied under the name Çubukludağ group, as well as Cumaovası volcanics. Composed of lacustrine and fluvialdeposits with coal-bearing marsh interbeds, Çatalca formation has not any observed lower stratigraphic contact.Bahçecik formation, which overlies the Çatalca formation with an unconformity marked by an abrupt change in thedepositional environment, consists of red-claret red conglomerates deposited in a lacustrine fan delta, includingfreshwater alga-bearing lacustrine limestone interbeds (Sarımustafa Member). Yeniköy formation overlies theBahçecik formation unconformably and contains fan deltaic and lacustrine deposits. The lower part of a fan deltasuccession, named as Akselvi member, is made from red-claret red fluvial conglomerates with a low-textural maturity.The upper part is a succession that is dominated by fluvial sandstone, pebbly sandstone, conglomerate with interbedsof lacustrine claystone-siltstone. Lacustrine Edil member, overlying Akselvi member with a relationship of lateralvertical transition, contains a laminated-shale dominated succession and bears felsic pyroclastic interbeds, productsrepresenting an earlier period for Cumaovası volcanism.Became active in late periods of the sedimentation during which Yeniköy formation occurred, Cumaovası volcanismhas two stages of volcanism marked by calc-alkaline rhyolitic volcanics, showing a lateral interfingering relationshipwith the deposition of Tahtalı formation. K-Ar ages ranging from 13,0±0,4 Ma to 13,8 Ma were obtained from rhyolitelavas emplaced on first-stage pyroclastics. The initial stage of phreatomagmatic volcanism originated in the lakewhere Edil member was deposited. The lake was entirely filled in the main explosion stage marked with pyroclasticflow deposits and rhyolite lavas. With the emplacement of first-stage Cumaovası volcanics, the basin in which Yeniköyformation had been deposited was closed and the sub basin was formed in the area where Tahtalı formation wasfilled, located in east of the volcanic axis. Composed of mainly braided river deposits, Tahtalı formation has a lateralinterfingering relationship with second-stage Cumaovası volcanics. Intermittent lacustrine deposits, described asÇamköy limestone member, rest on/within Tahtalı formation initiated with alluvial fan deposits (Sakartepe member)overlying over Bornova Flysch Zone at the southern margin of the basin unconformably.Gaziemir group, which is built from lower alluvial Akçaköy formation and upper lacustrine Buca formation, indicatesthe sedimentation occurred during Late Miocene-Early Pliocene. Akçaköy formation reflects sedimentation of theLate Miocene basin, took place on an alluvial fan from its western and eastern basin margins toward its center.Lacustrine Buca formation comprises limestone-dolomitic limestone and green claystone-siltstone successions(Develi member), overlying Akçaköy alluvial succession laterally passing at the basin margins and vertically alongthe interior parts.

  • Neogene Çubukludağ basin

  • Neogene Stratigraphy

  • Neogene volcanism

  • West Anatolia

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  • Göktaş, F . (2019). Çubukludağ Havzasındaki Neojen Tortullaşması ve Volkanizmasının Stratigrafisi, Batı Anadolu . Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni , 62 (1) , 63-98 . DOI: 10.25288/tjb.521497

  • Applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in open-pit mines
    Yavuz Gül
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    Abstract: In recent years, mapping operations in open-pit mines are made by using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)having the advantages of cost, time and occupational safety. Using UAVs, easy, fast, high sensitive and economicmeasurements can be done in difficult field conditions. The advantages of UAV based mapping applications inopen-pit mines are explained in this study. Within this scope, orthophoto maps produced by UAV, digital elevationmodels (DEM), amount of stripping and production calculations, stock and dumping volume determinations anddeformation measurement studies are presented.

  • 3D modelling

  • open-pit mine

  • photogrammetry

  • UAV

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  • Cryderman, C., Mah, S.B., Shufletoski, A., 2014. Evaluation of UAV photogrammetric accuracy for mapping and earthworks computations. Geomatica, 68(4), 309-317

  • Deffontaines, B., Chang, K.J., Champenois, J., Fruneau, B., Pathier, E., Hu, J.C., Liu, Y.C., 2016. Active interseismic shallow deformation of the Pingting terraces (Longitudinal Valley–Eastern Taiwan) from UAV high-resolution topographic data combin

  • Eltner, A., Kaiser, A., Castillo, C., Rock, G., Neugirg, F., Abellán, A., 2016. Image-based surface reconstruction in geomorphometry–merits, limits and developments. Earth Surface Dynamics, 4(2), 359-389.

  • Gonçalves, J. A., Henriques, R., 2015. UAV photogrammetry for topographic monitoring of coastal areas. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 104, 101-111.

  • Gorkovchuk, D., Gorkovchuk, J., Hutnyk, B., 2017. Low-cost UAS photogrammetry for mining. GIM International, The Global Magazine for Geomatics, 31(11), 20-23.

  • Gül, Y., Hastaoğlu, K.Ö., Poyraz, F., 2018. Fimar, Emmioğlu ve Alternatif Mermer A.Ş.’ye ait Amasya mermer ocağı döküm sahası şevlerinde deformasyonların jeodezik yöntemle izlenmesi ve değerlendirilmesi. Nihai Rapor, Sivas Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi Müh

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  • Hemmelder, S., Marra, W., Markies, H., De Jong, S. M., 2018. Monitoring river morphology & bank erosion using UAV imagery–A case study of the river Buëch, Hautes-Alpes, France. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 73

  • Hugenholtz, C.H., Whitehead, K., Brown, O.W., Barchyn, T.E., Moorman, B.J., LeClair, A., Hamilton, T., 2013. Geomorphological mapping with a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS): Feature detection and accuracy assessment of a photogrammetrically-der

  • Immerzeel, W.W., Kraaijenbrink, P.D.A., Shea, J.M., Shrestha, A.B., Pellicciotti, F., Bierkens, M.F.P., De Jong, S.M., 2014. High-resolution monitoring of Himalayan glacier dynamics using unmanned aerial vehicles. Remote Sensing of Environment, 150,

  • Kılınçoğlu D.B., 2016. Farklı insansız hava araçları ile elde edilen görüntülerin otomatik fotogrametrik yöntemlerle değerlendirilmesi ve doğruluk analizi. İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, İstanbul, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, 131 s

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  • McLeod, T., Samson, C., Labrie, M., Shehata, K., Mah, J., Lai, P., Elder, J.H., 2013. Using video acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to measure fracture orientation in an open-pit mine. Geomatica, 67(3), 173-180.

  • Niethammer, U., James, M.R., Rothmund, S., Travelletti, J., Joswig, M., 2012. UAV-based remote sensing of the Super-Sauze landslide: Evaluation and results. Engineering Geology, 128, 2-11.

  • Niethammer, U., Rothmund, S., Schwaderer, U., Zeman, J., Joswig, M., 2011. Open source image-processing tools for low-cost UAV-based landslide investigations. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Scienc

  • Peterman, V., 2015. Landslide activity monitoring with the help of unmanned aerial vehicle. The International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 40(1/W4), 215-218.

  • Popescu, G., Iordan, D., Păunescu, V., 2016. The resultant positional accuracy for the orthophotos obtained with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, 10, 458-464.

  • Rau, J.Y., Jhan, J.P., Lo, C.F., Lin, Y.S., 2011. Landslide mapping using imagery acquired by a fixed-wing UAV. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci, 38(1/C22), 195-200.

  • Rossi, P., Mancini, F., Dubbini, M., Mazzone, F., Capra, A., 2017. Combining nadir and oblique UAV imagery to reconstruct quarry topography: Methodology and feasibility analysis. European Journal of Remote Sensing, 50(1), 211-221.

  • Seki, M., Tiryakioğlu, İ., Uysal, M., 2017. Farklı veri toplama yöntemleriyle yapılan hacim hesaplarının karşılaştırılması. Geomatik Dergisi, 2(2), 106-111.

  • Shahbazi, M., Sohn, G., Théau, J., Ménard, P., 2015. UAV-based point cloud generation for open-pit mine modelling. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing & Spatial Information Sciences, 40(1/W4), 313-320.

  • Shi J., Jinling W, Yaming X., 2011. Object-based change detection using georeferenced UAV images. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 38, 177-182.

  • Tong X, Liu X, Chen P, Liu S, Luan K, Li L, Liu S, Liu X, Xie H, Jin Y, Hong Z., 2015. Integration of UAV-based photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning for the three-dimensional mapping and monitoring of open-pit mine areas. Remote Sensing, 7(6

  • Udin, W.S., Ahmad, A., 2014. Assessment of photogrammetric mapping accuracy based on variation flying altitude using unmanned aerial vehicle. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, IOP Publishing, 18(1), 012027.

  • Ulusoy, İ., Şen, E., Tuncer, A., Sönmez, H., Bayhan, H., 2017. 3D multi-view stereo modelling of an open mine pit using a lightweight UAV. Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni/Geological Bulletin of Turkey, 60(2), 223- 242.

  • Yusoff, A.R., Ariff, M.F.M., Idris, K.M., Majid, Z., Chong, A.K., 2017. Camera calibration accuracy at different UAV flying heights. International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 42(2/W3), 595- 600.

  • Url-1 < https://www.pix4d.com/>, erişim tarihi: 2018.


  • Gül, Y . (2019). Açık Maden İşletmelerinde İnsansız Hava Aracı (İHA) Uygulamaları . Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni , 62 (1) , 99-112 . DOI: 10.25288/tjb.519506

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