Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni
Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni

Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni

2017 ARALIK Cilt 60 Sayı 4
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Pleistocene Glaciations in Karadağ, Western Taurus Mountains, Turkey.
Cihan Bayrakdar Zeynel Çilğin Faize Sariş
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Abstract: Karadağ is one of the mountains subjected to the Pleistocene glaciations in the Teke Peninsula (WesternTaurus) along with Beydağları, Akdağ, and Sandıras Mountains. Karadağ, which reaches 2418 m summit at a 30km straight distance from the northeast of Fethiye Bay, has many peaks over 2300 m. There are plenty of glacialresearches and dating studies aim to reveal Pleistocene glaciation chronology of the mountains such as Sandırasand Akdağ in the Teke Peninsula. On the other hand, glaciations in Beydağları were mentioned superficially and ingeneral terms. Lastly, there has not been known any glaciation phenomenon in Karadağ, in other words there are notany studies concerning the glaciation on the mountain. However, Karadağ has distinctive cirques and moraines onthe slopes of high elevations near the peak. In this study, we identified glacial valleys, cirques developed in differentsizes and aspects and lastly frontal and hummocky moraines in front of these cirques. They are descending to theelevation of 1800 m. With this study, a new glacial area was identified in Turkey and made a contribution to theglaciation inventory of Turkey. This study aims to reveal the geomorphological and climatological characteristics ofthis area with regard to tectonic, climatic and karstic characteristics during Pleistocene. Maps and relevant outputswere created and analyzed by geographic information systems using the spatial data obtained from the field studies,unmanned aerial vehicles and meteorological stations.

  • Karadağ

  • Pleistocene glaciations

  • Western Taurus


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    Z. Bora Ön M. Sinan Özeren Sena Akçer-Ön Memet Namik Çağatay
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    Abstract: Lake Van, which is the largest soda lake of the earth, lies in the Eastern Anatolian High Plateau. Twodifferent composite cores, that span the last 250 kyr and 90 kyr, were drilled in Lake Van within the frameworkof PALEOVAN project (ICDP). In order to test the theories of quasi-periodic behavior of climate, generated byastronomical and solar forces, this study investigates the cycles in Lake Van sediment geochemistry data by theLomb-Scargle Periodogram (LSP) spectral method. The results are correlated with the Eastern MediterraneanLC21 sediment core, Soreq and Sofular Cave speleothem stable isotope data with LSP results. The analyses showthe presence of the Milankovitch cycles, harmonics of the Milankovitch cycles, Holocene Bond cycles and theHallstadtzeit solar cycle. However, the results do not give a 1500 year cycle for 11.5-75 kyr BP interval.

  • Eastern Mediterranean

  • Holocene Bond cycles

  • Lomb-Scargle periodogram

  • paleoclimate

  • solar cycles


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  • Dating of geological samples over millions of years by Thermally Assisted Optically Stimulated Luminescence (TA-OSL) technique: Gediz River Terraces, Kula/Manisa
    Eren Şahiner Mehmet Korhan Erturaç Niyazi Meriç
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    Abstract: Studies focusing on the Quaternary, the last period of the Earth’s history (~ 2.6 Ma) is involved withinteraction of biosphere with significant earth processes such as climate changes, tectonic and volcanic activities.These studies are interdisciplinary in nature, which combines questions, techniques and methodologies of archeology,geology, paleoanthropology, geography and paleoseismology. In order to understand the main questions, such as“why”, “where” and “how” in earth processes, we consult physics and chemistry to answer the question “when”. Fundamental sciences provide independent dating techniques to determine the exact timing and also rate ofsignificant events. These techniques continuously develop by means of accuracy, integrity, sensitivity and also fieldof application.One of the basic sources of information of these studies, inorganic sediments, are successfully dated by OpticallyStimulated Luminescence (OSL) and Thermoluminescence (TL) methods for the Late Quaternary time interval (100-200 ka). Recent developments in luminescence technique involves the study of formation of luminescence signal andnature of trap-charge structures in crystal lattice reveal possibility of dating older sediments deposited over millionyears ago.In this study, we investigated the luminescence age of a high fluvial terrace in Kula (Manisa) Volcanic Field which ispreviously dated by constraining its deposition age with the radiometric dates of overlying lava flow (~1200 Ma) byemploying Thermally Assisted (TA) OSL protocol. TA-OSL stimulates deeper traps than the ordinary OSL methodsextending the age limit significantly. The result of TA-OSL age (1066±90 ka) coincides (88±10%) with the mean ofradiometric dates (1200±22 ka), showing a promising success of a developing technique.

  • Age limits

  • Gediz Terraces

  • Kula Volcanism

  • Luminescence Dating

  • TA-OSL

  • Very Deep Traps (VDT)


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  • The Effects of the Late Quaternary Glacial-Interglacial Cycles on the Biodiversity of Anatolia
    Hakan Gür
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    Abstract: Large continental ice-sheets in the Northern Hemisphere have grown and retreated many times throughoutthe Quaternary. Times with and without large continental ice-sheets are known as glacial and interglacial periods,respectively. Strong climatic fluctuations accompanying glacial-interglacial cycles forced species to either move tolocations that remain suitable, adapt to changing environmental conditions, or go extinct. Range shifts are the mostconspicuous and best documented responses of species to these climatic fluctuations. To understand how specieshave responded to global climate changes through the Late Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles, ecologicalniche modelling, together with molecular phylogeography, has been widely used in recent biogeographic studies.Ecological niche modelling, together with molecular phylogeography, will extend the Quaternary dynamics andevolutionary history of species living in Anatolia and therefore the understanding of the biogeography of Anatolia.In this article, a few examples regarding bird and mammal species were given to illustrate the above-mentionedcontents, and the future perspectives were discussed.

  • Biogeography

  • birds

  • climate change

  • ecological niche modelling

  • mammals

  • range shifts


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  • A Lower Paleolithic Section from the Pleistocene Period: Karain
    Yavuz Aydin
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    Abstract: The Lower Paleolithic layers containing chipped stone material that make up the subject of this work,are located in the E cavity of the cave. The archaeological deposits located in the E cavity is approximately 11 mthick. On the other hand, the part that concerns us and contains Lower Paleolithic layers is only 4 m. In this layer, 7different geologic units which can be distinguished from each other have been determined. Each of these geologicalunits has given us very important chipped stone finds.Techno-typological analyzes have been carried out on the mentioned chipped stone finds. Within the scope of thesestudies, the results of raw material, technology and chipped stone tool analyzes are presented. The results of theseanalyzes gave us important ideas about the Karain Lower Paleolithic chipping stone industry.Techno-typological analysis were made on 4767 pieces of chipped stone in total. The basic industrial elementsbetween them consist of unretouched flakes, tools and also cores and core fragments. These elements have beenclassified and reviewed considering to specific criteria. As a result of these examinations, it was discovered that the chipped stone materials belong to a period approximately 440,000-370,000 years ago contained both Tayacian andAcheulean cultural elements of the Lower Paleolithic Period together.There are no settlements and materials that can make much comparisons in Turkey, but there are some settlements inthe Levant Region of the Near East that show the characteristics of the Karain chipping stone industry. This situationsheds light on the distribution of cultures in different geographical locations in the macro-scale, and therefore to thehuman movements like long-distance migrations. 

  • Chipped Stone

  • Karain

  • Lower Paleolithic

  • Techno-typology


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  • Investigation the Effects of Landforms and Lithological Factors on the Climate in Diyarbakir Basin Using MODIS Satellite Data
    Sabri Karadoğan M. Tahir Kavak
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    Abstract: One of the factors affecting the climate on the earth is the features of rocks and ground form. The shapeof the ground is an obstacle in front of the air masses and it is effective in the formation of condensation, aspectand Föhn. Lithological factors cause different rocks to have different zones of solar radiation due to their differentreflectances, thus different heating of different regions of the earth. In this study, remote sensing techniques anddata were used in Diyarbakır basin in order to determine the effect of such conditions on the climate. To obtainsurface temperature of the basin, day and night images for the date of 7 April 2010 (9:15 and 20:20 at local timerespectively) were obtained from TERRA-MODIS satellite. Using surface temperature data, surface temperaturemaps are created and surface networks are registered with the model. In addition, graphs of surface temperaturechanges were created both through day and night data along the section lines formed by considering dominant airmasses and different earth shapes. In addition, graphs of surface temperature changes were created both throughday and night data along the section lines formed by considering dominant air masses and different earth shapes.The results showed that along with lithological factors and dominant air masses; surface albedo of differentorographic features, as well as Föhn event cause different climatic condition in a short distance.

  • Climate

  • Diyarbakır Basin

  • Earth Temperature

  • MODIS

  • Remote Sensing


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  • Climatic variability related to solar activity during the Little Ice Age: Lake Köyceğiz Sediment Records (SW Anatolia)
    Sena Akçer Ön
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    Abstract: Lake Köyceğiz, at Southwest Anatolia, is natural coastal dam lake that have two basins and is connectedto Mediterranean via a natural channel called Dalyan. In the scope of this study, two of the four short (max 800 mm)gravity cores were recovered from Köyceğiz Basin (north of the lake), one from Sultaniye Basin (south of the lake)andone core from the ridge between these two basins. Recovered cores are lithologically described and cores are analyzedfor multi-element geochemical analyses at 5 mm resolution using µXRF core scanner (ITRAX) and Multi Sensor CoreLogger (MSCL) for Magnetic Susceptibility. Cyprideis torosa (ostracoda) shells were picked and analyzed for 18O andδ13C analysis at 20 mm resolution. The cores were dated through AMS 14C analysis of various shells. The results ofAMS 14C analysis are corrected by assuming the hard water/local reservoir ages effect as 2100±90 years; accordingto the sedimentation rates from previous studies and known hard water/reservoir effects in Mediterranean lagoons.According to the age models, the cores span approximately last 500 years. Multi-proxy results suggest that LakeKöyceğiz cores cover Little Ice Age and show good correlation with decreases in Solar Activity spells, namely, Spörer,Maunder and Dalton Miniumum. These periods are characterized as cold/dry periods in Lake Köyceğiz sedimentrecords. So we can say that, climate of the region depends on the variability of sunspot numbers.  

  • Dalton Minimum

  • Lake Köyceğiz (Muğla)

  • Late Holocene

  • Maunder Minimum

  • Paleoclimate

  • Spörer Minimum


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  • Paleogeography and Geoarcheology Researches in Surroundings of the Bağlararası Mound (Çeşme–İzmir)
    Serdar Vardar Ertuğrul Öner Rifat İlhan
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    Abstract: The Aegean coasts of Anatolia have appropriate geographical setting during the historical ages and haveemerged as suitable places for settlement. It was understood that 2 nd and 3rd. Millennium BC settlements belongto Bronze Age and natural environment at the time was different from the present. Çeşme Bağlararası plain is aNW-SE direction tectonic depression that was shaped by the alluvium of the Liman Creek and the colluvium fromneighboring slopes. Liman Creek which has a very small drainage basin filled the shallow shore basin has 500 metersin width and 600 meters in length beginning from the bus station of Çeşme to actual harbor towards the NW. Thetraces of the environmental changes are registered within the alluvium infill this depression. Therefore core drillingswere done in Bağlararası alluvial plain to determine the paleogeographical-geoarchaeological characteristics of the surroundings of the mound in order to detect the past coast line and sea level positions and answer thearchaeological questions. 10 core drillings carried out at the September 2016 in the surroundings of the Bağlararasımound. Grain size, hydrometer, calcimeter, microfossil and elemental analysis of drilling samples have been done.Preliminary results indicate that the interpretations of paleo-environments such as marine infills and coast-coastalswamp must be based on microfossil analysis and be done meticulously. According to results of the core drillings,Holocene stratigraphy of the fill can be identified in a chronostratigraphic order as: on the clay-sandstone basementis overlain by Holocene transgression fills (Early Holocene), coastal swamp (Middle Holocene), anthropogenicmound fills (Middle-Late Holocene) and alluvial-colluvial fills (Late Holocene). Starting of the 3th millennium BC,the settlement was closer to the coast which is consistent with the Bronze Age regression. During the 2 nd MillenniumBC, the settlement migrated inwards the land. The chemical analysis of a tephra layer, which is found within thecultural fills of the Bronze Age period, correlates well with the tephra emitted from Minoan volcanic eruption ofSantorini. This layer is used as a key layer in chronostratigraphic interpretations.  

  • Bağlararası mound

  • Çeşme

  • geoarchaeology

  • Izmir

  • paleogeography


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  • Vardar, S., Öner, E. 2016a. “Investigation on Distrubution of the Santorini (Thera)Tephra in West Anatolia and Paleogeographical-Geoarchaeological Features of the Çeşme-Bağlararası mound”, Proceedings of III. International Çeşme-Chios History, Culture and Tourism Symposium. 3-4 Kasım, 78-96, Çeşme-İzmir, Turkey.

  • Vardar S., Öner, E., 2016b. “Batı ve Güneybatı Anadolu’nun Paleocoğrafyası ve Jeoarkeolojisinde Santorini (Thera) Küllerinin Önemi”, A.Ü. Türkiye Coğrafyası Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi Coğrafi Bilimler Dergisi, Cilt 14, Sayı 1,15-37.

  • Waelbroeck, C., Labeyrie, L., Michel, E., Duplessy, J.C., Mcmanus, J.F., Lambeck, K., Balbon, E., Labracherie M., 2002. “Sea-Level and Deep Water Temperature Changes Derived from Benthic Foraminifera Isotopic Records”, Quaternary Science Reviews 21, 295–305.

  • Vardar, S , Öner, E , İlhan, R . (2017). Bağlararası Höyüğü Çevresinde Paleocoğrafya ve Jeoarkeoloji Araştırmaları (Çeşme– İzmir) . Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni , Türkiye`de Kuvaterner Araştırmaları , 589-613 . DOI: 10.25288/tjb.370618

  • Investigating the Fluvial Response to Late Pleistocene Climate Changes and Vertical Deformation: Yeşilırmak Terrace Staircases (central north Anatolia)
    Mehmet Korhan Erturaç Nafiye Güneç Kiyak
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    Abstract: River terraces are remnants of former river floodplains that are fossilized above present-day river channels,often in staircase systems. The formation of terrace staircases is attributed to both tectonic, climate and sea/base levelchanges. Variations in tectonic and climatic conditions cause perturbations in the fluvial system, which, over time,lead to widening of valley floors, aggradation and incision, thereby producing terraces representing the complexresponse of the fluvial system to the chances in variables listed above.This study reports on the formation of terrace staircases at Yeşilırmak River system of central northwest Anatolia,near Geldingen Plain (Amasya). The depositional steps reaching +70 m (above today’s recent floodplain), havebeen mapped and dated by using luminescence method which reveals that terrace formation started at early latePleistocene and continued within Last Glacial Period. The terrace steps, namely T3 (+70 m), T2 (+35 m) and T1(+15) were deposited during MIS5a, MIS3 and end of LGM. The correlation with the adjacent climate archivesreveals that the terraces are formed primarily in response to climatically induced fluctuations in river discharge andsediment supply. Relative positions of the terrace risers and abandonment ages, enables us to calculate a long-termvertical uplift rate of 0.94±0.26 mm/year at the study area, located to the south of the North Anatolian Fault Zone.

  • River Terraces

  • Climate Change

  • Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL)

  • tectonic uplift rate

  • Yeşilırmak

  • North Anatolian Fault Zone


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  • Erturaç, K , Güneç Kıyak, N . (2017). Yeşilırmak Taraçalarında (Orta Kuzey Anadolu) Geç Pleyistosen İklim Değişiklikleri ve Düşey Yönlü Deformasyona Akarsu Cevabının Araştırılması . Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni , Türkiye`de Kuvaterner Araştırmaları , 615-636 . DOI: 10.25288/tjb.370625

  • Contribution of Micromammal Palaeontology to Quaternary Studies in Turkey: Definitions and Applications
    Ozan Erdal
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    Abstract: Anatolia plays an important role as a bridge between Africa, Europe and Asia for the evolutionary course ofvertebrates. It is potentially rich in fossil bearing deposits which would greatly serve to contribute the understandingof vertebrate evolution. However, paleontological research conducted in Turkey is mainly focused on Paleogeneand Miocene deposits. Although it is obvious that any studies of mammalian paleontology dealing with any intervalof Cenozoic in Anatolia is worthful because of its potential, one must point out that Quaternary mammalian faunais still not well known when compared to European equivalent. In this manner, it is not difficult to estimate howmicromammalian paleontology is less dealt.During the 70th Geological Congress of Turkey, a special session was dedicated to diverse trends of Quaternaryresearch where many topics are discussed within the scope of a veritable “state of the art” and perspective, includingmicromammal paleontology. The present study deals with some general definitions and fields of applicationof micromammals (mostly rodents) besides a short history of vertebrate paleontology in Turkey as well as briefsummaries of all conducted or ongoing studies on the Quaternary micromammalian fauna in Anatolia. The latter isalso displayed on a location map providing localities and relevant references. The main motivation of this study is tounderline the potential contribution of micromammal paleontology to Quaternary research in Turkey and to providea perspective, despite of encountered problems.

  • Anatolia

  • micromammals

  • Quaternary

  • Rodentia


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  • Quaternary Geological Mapping in the World and Turkey, and Encountered Problems
    Alper Gürbüz Nizamettin Kazanci
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    Abstract: Towards the mid-nineteenth century, the unconsolidated deposits, which are mostly occupy quite largeareas particularly in North Eurasia and North America, have become the main argument among the geoscientists.Although the term ‘Quaternary’ has been suggested as a time unit in that century, this period had often been shown in the maps under the headings of "diluvium-alluvium", "old/new alluvium". While the origins of these Quaternaryaged units had been discussed under hot debate, these units have felt their importance from the beginning. However,during the mapping studies, the Neogene and Quaternary units have not been elaborated for many years on geologicalmaps and are generally seen to be roughly mapped only as age units. A large part of the settlements around the world are located in plain areas that covered by the Quaternary depositsbecause of the attraction of geographical conditions, such as transportation suitability and interaction with waterresources.  Due to the rapidly increasing human population and urbanization, there is a growing need for detailedmapping of these units beyond their characterization as only ‘alluvium’. From the beginning of the twentieth century,attempts have been made to map the Quaternary units, particularly on the European scale, but these attempts havenot resulted because of the Second World War. Although the lithology was considered firstly in the early Quaternarygeological maps, it is observed that the ages and depositional environments of the units are taken in account in theworld generally. In addition to this criterion, grain size, grain and mineral composition, coastal and glacial lines,and engineering characteristics are also considered in the geological mapping of Quaternary in some countries. In Turkey, the mapping of Quaternary plains, where the settlements developed rapidly on, has become a necessityfirstly for engineering purposes, especially after the 1999 earthquakes. At the same time, in terms of their greatscientific value for climate and active tectonics researches, their importance also increases the need for mappingof these units. In this study, the evaluation of current approaches in the preparation of Quaternary geological mapsand encountered major problems have been made on the basis of examples from various parts of the world and fromTurkey.

  • Quaternary mapping

  • geological map

  • geomorphological map

  • depositional environments

  • Pliocene problem


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