Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni
Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni

Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni

2022 NİSAN Cilt 65 Sayı 2
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Anadolu Çaprazı: Kuzey Anadolu Fay Zonu ile Ege / Kıbrıs Yayları Arasında Geniş Bir Sol Yanal Makaslama Zonu
Ergin Gökkaya Bülent Kaypak Korhan Esat Esra Tunçel Gürol Seyitoğlu
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Öz: Türk-İran Platosu, Arap ve Avrasya levhalarının çarpışmaları ile ilişkili Bitlis-Zagros Kenet Zonu`nun ard ülkesinde yer alır. Platonun iç deformasyonunun yakın zamanda ayrıntılı biçimde incelenmesi, sağ ve sol yanal doğrultu atımlı yapıların çoklu kesişme noktalarının varlığını ortaya çıkarmış ve bu kaçınılmaz olarak Anadolu Çaprazı adı ile anılan geniş sol yanal makaslama zonu ile açıklanmıştır. Anadolu Çaprazı`nı sınırlayan ve iç deformasyonuna neden olan faylar, yüksek çözünürlüklü uydu görüntüleri, depremlerin odak mekanizması çözümleri ve deniz alanlarındaki yayınlanmış sismik yansıma kesitleri yardımıyla incelenmiştir. Anadolu Çaprazı, Orta Anadolu Fay Zonu ile Doğu Anadolu Fay Zonu arasında 170 km genişliğe ve Erzincan ile Kıbrıs Yayı arasında 850 km uzunluğa sahip, KD-GB yönelimli bir sol yanal makaslama zonudur. Bu zon, Kuzey Anadolu Fay Zonu ve Güneydoğu Anadolu-Zagros Fay Zonu ile en az dört kesişim noktasına sahiptir. Anadolu Çaprazı`na ait Ecemiş-Deliler Fayı`nın Akdeniz`deki uzanımı olan Biruni Fayı, Kıbrıs Yayı’na ve Piri Reis Sırtı`na (Mediterranean Ridge) Kıbrıs`ın batısında ulaşmaktadır. Bu yapı, Antalya – Kekova Fay Zonu ile daralmalı sıçrama oluşturmakta olup, bu nedenle Antalya havzasında KB-GD doğrultulu bindirmeler ile temsil edilen Florence Yükselimi ve Antalya Bindirmesi meydana gelmiştir. Diğer bir daralmalı sıçrama alanı ise Antalya-Kekova Fay Zonu ile Pliny-Strabo Fay Zonu arasında gelişmiş olup, burada Rodos havzasının bindirmeler ile kontrol edilen kuzey kenarı bulunmaktadır. Bu neotektonik çerçeve içinde, varlığı oldukça tartışmalı olan Pliny ve Strabo faylarının karadaki devamı olarak değerlendirilen sol yanal Fethiye-Burdur Fay Zonu`na ihtiyaç bulunmamaktadır. Aslında, Anadolu Levhasının batıya hareketi, sol yanal Anadolu Çaprazı Makaslama Zonu, Antalya-Kekova Fay Zonu ve Pliny-Strabo Fay Zonu ile sağ yanal Kuzey Anadolu Fay Zonu tarafından karşılanmaktadır.

  • Anadolu Çaprazı

  • Doğu Akdeniz

  • Doğu Anadolu Fay Zonu

  • Kıbrıs

  • Neotektonik

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  • Büyükbostancı-Çiçekpınar (Balıkesir, KB Türkiye) Yöresindeki Oligosen-Miyosen Yaşlı Kalk-alkalen Volkanik Kayaçların Mineral Kimyası, Jeokimyası ve Petrolojisi
    Ferhat Bozan Zafer Aslan
    PDF Olarak Görüntüle

    Öz: Bu çalışmada, Balıkesir ili güneyindeki Büyükbostancı-Çiçekpınar (Balıkesir, KB Türkiye) yöresinde bulunan, Oligosen-Miyosen yaşlı volkanik kayaçların petrografisi, mineral kimyası jeokimyası ve petrolojisi incelenmiştir. Çalışılan volkanikler andezit, bazaltik andezit, trakiandezit ve piroklastik kayaçlardan oluşmaktadır. Mikrolitik porfirik, porfirik yer yer de fluidal, glomeroporfirik ve sferülitik dokuya sahip olan volkanik kayaçlar, plajiyoklaz, klinopiroksen, amfibol, biyotit ve Fe-Ti oksit ana minerallerden ibarettir. Çalışılan volkanik kayaçlara ait mineral kimyası analiz sonuçlarına göre, plajiyoklazlar andezin (An33-47Ab49-61Or2-6) ve labradorit (An60-62Ab34-38Or1-4), piroksenler ojit ve klinoenstatit (Wo43En75Fs36-Wo1En38Fs14), biyotitler ise Mg’lu biyotit türündedir. Biyotit mineralinden jeotermobarometre hesaplamalarına göre, 798-843°C sıcaklık ve 0,67-1,93 kbar basınç elde edilmiştir. Jeokimyasal olarak, çalışılan volkanik kayaçlar yüksek K`lu kalk-alkalen özelliğe sahiptir. Andezitik volkanik kayaçlarda hornblend, klinopiroksen ve biyotit mineral ayrımlaşmasının hâkim olduğu fraksiyonel kristalleşme ve asimilasyon süreçleri etkili olmuştur. Volkanik kayaçların Normal-Okyanus Ortası Sırtı Bazaltları`na (N-OOSB)göre normalize iz element diyagramında, büyük iyon yarıçaplı litofil elementlerce (BİYE, Rb, U ve Th) zenginleşme izlenirken, yüksek çekim alanlı elementlerce (YÇAE, Nb ve Tb) ise fakirleşme görülmektedir. Kondrite göre normalize nadir toprak element dağılımları, (La/Lu)N 8,29-15,65 ile orta düzeyde zenginleşme göstermekte olup, genel olarak konkav bir dağılım sunmaktadır. Elde edilen veriler ile bölgesel jeolojik veriler birlikte değerlendirildiğinde, incelenen volkanik kayaçların yitim izi taşıyan çarpışma sonrası ürünler olduğu ve ayrıca zenginleşmiş litosferik mantodan türemiş olduğunu işaret etmektedir.

  • Andezit

  • Biga Yarımadası

  • Hallaçlar Volkanik Kayaçları

  • Jeokimya

  • mineral kimyası


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  • Kuzeydoğu Anadolu`da Küçük Buzul Çağı`nın Sonu: Aygır Gölü Sedimanlarının Çoklu Proksi Paleo-Limnolojik İncelemesi (Kars KD Anadolu)
    Ahmet Evren Erginal Nurettin Yakupoğlu Çağlar Çakir Abdullah Akbaş Serkan Kükrer
    PDF Olarak Görüntüle

    Öz: Aygır Gölü`nden (KD Anadolu) alınan sediman karotunun (AY karotu) sedimantolojik, jeokimyasal ve duraylı izotop analizleri son ~500 yıldaki iklim değişikliklerin kanıtlarını ortaya koymaktadır. Siltli kilden oluşan Aygır Gölü sedimanlarının modellenen sedimantasyon hızı ~0,16 cm/yıldır. Detritik olarak çökelmiş proksi elementlerin tabandan yüzeye dağılımına göre yapılan çoklu proksi analizlerine göre, toplam kalsiyum karbonat, organik karbon ve duraylı izotop verileri Küçük Buzul Çağı`ndan (KBÇ; 1350-1850 MS) Endüstriyel Dönem`e (ED, 18-19 yy) geçişi temsil eder ve bu dönem düşük ayrışma hızı ve kurak koşulları açıklayacak şekilde toplam organik karbon, Ca, Sr değerlerindeki düşüşle temsil edilir. Karotun üst kısımları ise (192 yıl öncesinden günümüze) kırıntılardaki artış ve yüksek Fe, Ti, K, Rb ve Zr konsantrasyonları yanı sıra yüksek δ18O ve δ13C değerleri ile temsil edilir ve Endüstri Çağı`nın sıcak koşullarını açıklar.

  • Aygır Gölü

  • duraylı izotop

  • Kuzeydoğu Anadolu

  • paleoiklim

  • sediman karotu

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  • Geophysical Study to Identify Iron Mineralization Anomalies Using Terrestrial Magnetometry in the Chak-Chak Exploration Area, Iran
    Ali Akbar Aali Aref Shirazi Adel Shirazi Shayan Khakmardan Abbas Maghsoudi Ardeshir Hezarkhani
    PDF Olarak Görüntüle

    Abstract: Mineral exploration is the underlying theme of industry and discoveries because humans havebeen exploring for minerals from the very beginning, based on their needs. This research aims to find promisingareas of iron ore mineralization in Chak-Chak Exploration area of Yazd province, Iran. The study’s range lies ata latitude of 32-33 degrees north and a longitude of 54-55 degrees east. This study collected data using terrestrialmagnetometry at 6222 points in a 20 m x 10 m grid. Initially, these data were pre-processed, such as removing themagnetic field effect of the Earth’s core. Subsequently, processes such as applying polarisation filters, trend surfacecorrection, upward and downward conversions, vertical derivatives and analytical signals on the terrestrial magneticdata were performed. The Exploration range contains numerous peaks in the southwest and other summits in thenortheast, according to the research findings. These anomalies are consistent with igneous rock units (rhyolites) andfaults. Consequently, it may be stated that one of the most rapid and least costly methods of detecting iron anomaliesis terrestrial magnetism, which produces satisfactory results.

  • Chak-Chak

  • iron

  • magnetic field

  • mineralization

  • terrestrial magnetism


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  • Shirazy, A., Shirazi, A., Ferdossi, M. H., & Ziaii, M. (2019). Geochemical and geostatistical studies for estimating gold grade in tarq prospect area by k-means clustering method. Open Journal of Geology, 9(6), 306-326.

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  • Aali, A. A. , Shirazi, A. , Shirazy, A. , Khakmardan, S. , Maghsoudi, A. & Hezarkhani, A. (2022). Geophysical Study to Identify Iron Mineralization Anomalies Using Terrestrial Magnetometry in the Chak-Chak Exploration Area, Iran . Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni , 65 (2) , 159-170 . DOI: 10.25288/tjb.1035354

  • Göl Çökellerinde Polen Analizine Dayalı Paleoiklim Rökonstriksüyonu İçin Yerbilimci Bir Yaklaşım; Sorunlar ve Çözümler
    Güldem Kamar
    PDF Olarak Görüntüle

    Öz: Göller, polen analizlerinin ve paleoiklim araştırmalarının ideal olarak yapılabildiği, organik malzeme bakımından zengin çökeller içermektedir. Birçok organizmaya yaşam alanı sunan göller, polenlerin en iyi korunabildiği ortamlardır ve göl çökelleri, iklimsel ve ortamsal değişimlerin korunduğu bir arşiv özelliği sunmaktadır. Polen analizlerine dayalı palaeoiklim rökonstrüksiyonu yapmak için, çalışma alanının jeolojik, biyolojik ve arkeolojik açıdan detaylı bir şekilde araştırılması gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, polen analizi üzerinden paleoklim rökonstriksüyonu yapmak isteyen araştırmacılara metodolojik bir perspektif sunmaktır. Çalışma kapsamında önerilen yöntem ile paleoiklim çalışmalarında, bölgenin jeolojik yapısı, volkanik aktivitesi, arkeolojik geçmişi ve göl tabanının yapısal unsurlarının polen diyagramlarındaki değişimlere olan etkileri ayrıntılı olarak anlatılmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, bugüne kadar, birbirine yakın mesafeli göllerde (Doğu Anadolu platosu yüksek rakım gölleri)ve Van Gölü’nün taraçalarında yapılan çalışmalardan elde edilen veriler bu farklılığın ortaya konması açısından volkanik aktivite, insan etkisi, çökel hızı ve göl tabanının yapısal özellikleri başlıkları altında irdelenmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre, paleoiklim rökonstriksüyonu yapmadan önce, öncelikli olarak; istif paketlerinin tanımlanması, yerel bitkisel değişimler ve güncel flora, göl tabanının yapısal unsurları, insan etkisi ve volkanizma ayrı başlıklar halinde araştırılmalıdır. 

  • Doğu Anadolu

  • İnsan etkisi

  • Paleoiklim rökonstriksüyonu

  • Polen analizi

  • Van Gölü



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  • Moralli Deresi Sisteminin Kuvaterner Yaşlı Tortullarının Tane Boyu Dağılımı ve Depolanma Ortamları (Tuşba, Van, Türkiye)
    Gül Şen Türker Yakupoğlu
    PDF Olarak Görüntüle

    Öz: Bu çalışmada Van ili sınırları içinde, Van Gölü`nün doğusunda yer alan Moralli Deresi kanalındaki ve civarındaki Kuvaterner yaşlı akarsu-göl tortullarının tane boyu dağılımı belirlenerek, depolanma ortamlarındaki hidrodinamik enerjinin aşınma, taşınma ve depolanma sürecindeki etkisinin ortaya çıkarılmasının yanı sıra tortul fasiyeslerin tanımlanması, depolanma ortamları ve çökelme ortamının jeomorfolojik özelliklerinin tespit edilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Tortulların tane boyu dağılım eğlimini belirlemek için derenin kaynak alanından başlanarak, Van Gölü’ne döküldüğü yere kadar belirli aralıklarla alınan toplam 42 adet tortul numunesine tane boyu analizi yapılmıştır. Akarsu kaynak alanından alınan tortulların tane boyları çoğunlukla 0,42-0,25 mm arasında, akarsu yatağının akış aşağı kısımlarından alınan tortulların tane boylarının ise 0,125-0,037 mm arasında olduğu belirlenmiştir. Akarsu tortullarının ortalama tane boyu ince kum-çok ince kum boylarında, boylanma parametresi genel olarak kötü boylanma sınıfında, yamukluk derecesi çoğunlukla kuvvetli negatif çarpık, tepelenme derecesi ise platikurtik olarak tespit edilmiştir. Delta düzlüğünden alınan tortul numunelerinin tane boyları 4,75-0,25 mm, delta kanallarından alınan tortul numunelerinin tane boyları 1,00-0,25 mm, delta önü alanından alınan tortul numunlerinin tane boyları ise 0,074-0,037 mm arasında dağılım göstermiştir. Delta düzlüğü tortullarının ortalama tane boyu kaba kum sınıfında, kötü boylanmalı, pozitif çarpık ve mezokurtik özelliklerinde, delta kanalı tortullarının ortalama tane boyu orta-ince kum sınıfında, kötü boylanmalı, pozitif çarpık ve platikurtik özelliklerinde, delta önü tortullarının ortalama tane boyu çok ince kum sınıfında, orta boylanmalı, negatif çarpık ve leptokurtik özelliklerinde olduğu belirlenmiştir. Kıyı tortullarının tane boylarının ise ağırlıklı olarak 1-0,42 mm aralığında olduğu belirlenmiştir. Kıyıda özellikle düşük enerjinin etkili olduğu kıyı önü alanında 0,074-0,037 mm boyundaki ince taneleri içeren tortullar bulunmaktayken, akıntı kanalı ve kıyı kırınım alanlarında ise >4,75 mm boyundaki çakıl tanelerini içeren tortulların çökeldiği saptanmıştır. Van Gölü kıyı tortullarının ortalama tane boyu dağılımı çok kaba kum, kaba kum ve orta kum boylarında olup, orta-iyi ve orta boylanma, simetrik-pozitif çarpıklık ve leptokurtik parametreleriyle temsilidir. Bu çalışma kapsamında yapılan sedimantolojik analizler sonucu elde edilen tane boyu ve istatistik parametre verileriyle Moralli Deresi’nin hidrodinamik enerjisinin kum-silt-kil boyu taneleri taşıyabilecek potansiyelde, Van Gölü`nün dalga enerjisinin ise çakıl ve kum boyu taneleri taşıyabilecek potansiyelde olduğu ve akaçlama ağı havzasında depolanmış tortul tane boyunun akış aşağıya doğru inceldiği ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Ayrıca, Van Gölü su seviyesinde iklimsel değişikliklerden kaynaklı yükselmeler ve alçalmaların oluşturduğu akarsu, delta ve gölsel kıyı depolanma ortamlarında çökelen tortulların fasiyesleri tanımlanmış olup, tektonik ve hidrodinamik aktivitelerden kaynaklanan jeomorfolojik unsurlar (kıyı oku, kıyı dili, kıyı bariyeri, göl ve akarsu taraçası) belirlenmiştir.

  • Akarsu-göl tortulları

  • depolanma ortamları

  • Kuvaterner

  • Moralli Deresi

  • tane boyu analizi

  • Van Gölü


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